CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS
Accuracy and consistency of on-line natural gas analysis
C.J.Cowper（EffecTech Ltd.））.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp1～10,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The accuracy and consistency of on-line natural gas analysis using the gas chromatography method was investigated systematically and carefully. Since the gas chromatography method is a comparative method, the calibration gas, the performance of the analyzer and the choice of calibration gas composition are critical factors to obtain accuracy and consistency of on-line analysis. The gravimetric preparations of calibration gases, especially EffecTech procedures, were elaborated detailedly. At the same time, the performance of analyzer was studied. Specifically, the detailed bias error and uncertainty calculations were described and interpreted. Generally, bias errors and uncertainties cannot be combined in a satisfactory manner and as such, they are usually compared. However, it is now common practice to accept errors in the measurement of component amount fractions provided their effect does not give rise to unacceptable errors in physical properties.
Keywords: bias error, uncertainty calculation, calibration gas, on-line natural gas analysis, consistency, gas chromatography, comparative technique
Development states of ISO/TC 193 in 2011
Luo Qin, Xu Wenxiao(Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology of PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company, Chendu 610213, Sichuan, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp11～16,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: This article introduces the organization structure, constitute of work groups， international standards issued and the 23rd plenary meeting of ISO/TC 193. Emphasis focuses on detailed illustration and discussion of natural gas quality specification, analysis and measurement technology development of work group directly under TC/193, SC1 Natural Gas Analysis, SC3 Upstream in 2011. The next work proposals of natural gas quality specification, analysis and measurement standardization developed for adopting standard and international standardization in China were also put forward.
Keywords: natural gas, international standard, annual meeting
Application and research of high sulfur content gas desulfurization and decarbonization process on Puguang gas field
Pei Aixia,Zhang Lisheng,Yu Yanqiu, et al(Puguang Branch Gas Purification Plant of Zhongyuan Oilfield).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp17～23,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: So far, Puguang gas field is the largest and most abundant oversize marine carbonate reservoir that has been exploited in China. The range of H2S and CO2 content in natural gas is 13%-18%（v） and 8%-10%（v） respectively, organic sulfur content is 340.6 mg/m3. The conventional acid gas removal process is not applicable. By research and analysis on high sulfur natural gas purification technology, the gas purification process of Puguang gas field is set up. MDEA is selected as main absorption solvent, and organic sulfur is removed by catalytic reaction. To control the CO2 absorption, an interstage cooler is set between the first main absorber and the second absorber. The rich MDEA from acid gas removal unit and tail gas treating unit is regenerated in the same stripper to reduce the cost and energy consumption. This technology has been applied in Puguang gas field for more than one year, and the technical specifications meet requirements, the content of H2S in product is lower than 6 mg/m3, CO2 is lower than 3%（v）, and the total sulfur is lower than 200 mg/m3.
Keywords: Puguang gas field, natural gas purification, desulfurization and decarbonization, organic sulfur
Corrosion causes and preventive measures of high acidity gas on reboiler of desulfurization regeneration unit
Xu Shili，Chen Dongli（Chongqing Natural Gas Purification General Plant of PetroChina Southwest Oil&Gasfield Company）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp24～27,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: High sulfur natural gas coming from Yunan plant and Gao Fengchang gas field is treated in Wanzhou purification plant. Some surface-active substances are added to the natural gas during the exploitation of upstream gas field, which will be brought into amine solution of desulfurization unit. In addition, the temperature at the bottom of regenerator is higher than the operation temperature in other devices. The interaction between the high acidity components and other impurities will aggravate the corrosion of reboiler. All these factors could be hidden danger to the smooth running of the unit. Some equipment corrosion reasons which result in the corrosion of reboiler are analyzed elementarily and furthermore, some preventive measures were put forward for reference according to technology, equipment and operation management.
Keywords: high acidity gas, reboiler, solution, corrosion, operation, measures
Industrial application of chlorine adsorption and high-efficient biological treatment technology
Huang Yong1,Zhou Dongyan2,Zhao Xiaoping3,et al（1.Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum(Group) Co.,Ltd; Xi'an 710075,Shaanxi,China; 2. Refinery Company of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum (Group) Co., Ltd, Yan'an 727406, Shaanxi,China; 3. Science and Technology Department of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum(Group) Co., Ltd, Xi'an 710075, Shaanxi,China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp28～31,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract:According to the application of new technologies such as chlorine adsorption and high-efficient biological treatment, the technical principles and technical characteristics of the catalytic reforming and alkaline residue treating process are analyzed. The new technologies applying in different units achieve obvious results, such as improving the gasoline octane number, reducing the harmful emission substances such as COD, phenol and H2S, improving the quality of sewage water.
Keywords: catalytic reforming, alkaline residue treatment, industrial application
Application analysis of sulfur recovery catalysts CT6-4B and CT6-5B
Pei Gutang1,Tang Zhonghuai2,Zhang Jian1,et al(1.PetroChina Dushanzi Petrochemical Refinery;2.Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfiled Company).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp32～34,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: It introduces the application situation of catalysts CT6-4B and CT6-5B in sulfur recovery units of Dushanzi Petrochemical Company. When the processing load exceeds design condition 50%, with the abnormal situation such as on-line analyzer failure and mixing valve of the grade 2 converter jam, etc., both of the catalysts show good characteristics, which can ensure the tail gas reach the emission standard. All of the application experiences present a reference for similar devices using same catalysts.
Keywords: sulfur recovery, CT6-4B, CT6-5B, catalyst, application
Safety interlocking characteristics of FCC gasoline etherification unit
Wen Shichang, Sun Fangxian, Liu Chengjun, et al(CPECC EastChina Design Branch, Qingdao 266071, Shandong).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp35～38,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The foreign process technology is introduced to build a new FCC gasoline etherification unit in a refinery. The process flow and safety interlocking scheme have some special characteristics compared to the other etherification units. Important safety interlocking systems of the unit are introduced and discussed, including the normal hydrocarbon inventory isolation interlocking, the heater interlocking, the compressor interlocking and the pump interlocking. Meanwhile, the special interlockings of the unit are described, including the hydrogenation column interlocking, the etherification reactor and isomerization reactor interlockings. These safety interlockings are important to the design and safe operation of the FCC gasoline etherification unit, which can avoid the potential danger in the process.
Keywords: FCC gasoline, etherification, hydrogenation, isomerization, safety interlocking, process flow
Application of super sonic separator on offshore platform
Zhang Ming, Wang Chunsheng（CNOOC Research Institute, Beijing 100027）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp39～42,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Super sonic separator is a new technology for natural gas dehydration and dehydrocarbon. Comparing to the traditional natural gas dehydration technology, it has advantages of low investments, high efficiency, low power consumption and small equipment dimension, but it has the disadvantage of high pressure drop. This paper discussed the application feasibility of the new technology on offshore platform dehydration and dehydrocarbon process, made a comparison with the traditional natural gas dehydration technology.
Keywords: super sonic separator, offshore platform, natural gas processing
Technical analysis and operation status of LNG plant in Zhuhai
Guo Haiyan, Zhang Weisen(CNOOC Guangdong LNG Co., Ltd, Zhuhai 519030, Guangdong, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp43～47,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: As the first LNG plant in China National Ocean Oil Company (CNOOC), Zhuhai LNG plant has adopted advanced technology and equipments with high homemanufactured degree. The paper introduced the technical processes in the Zhuhai LNG plant of CNOOC, including MDEA decarbonization process, 4A molecular sieve deep dehydration process, PRICO mixture refrigerant process and LNG storage process, analyzed the plant operating status, summarized the problems exposed in practical operation and proposed the solutions. It could provide technical reference for domestic similar LNG devices.
Keywords: liquefied natural gas, small scale LNG plant, natural gas pretreatment, molecular sieve dehydration，mixed refrigeration, MDEA, PRICO, technical analysis
Experimental research on typical interchangeability discriminance applicability of domestic gas appliance
Yang Xianchao, Qin Chaokui, Dai Wanneng(College of Mechanic Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp48～52,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The AGA Indices method and weaver indices method are typical overseas interchangeability discriminant methods. Under the background of interchangeability of multisource natural gas in Shanghai, the pipeline gas in lab is used as reference gas, the AGA Indices(IL、IF、IY) and Weaver Indices(JH、JA、JF、JL、JI、JY) of all kinds of substitute gas were calculated. The interchangeability of reference gas and substitute gas was analyzed theoretically and experimentally.Finally，compared tests with the calculation results, analyzed and discussed the domestic applicability of two indices methods. The tests proved AGA Indices method could well predicted interchangeability but did not give the emission index of CO, while Weaver Indices could well predict flame-out, backfire and heat load change but did not accurately reflect yellow flame and CO emission. Therefore, in order to reflect completely the results of interchangeability by pure index methods, it is necessary to analyze the interchangeability combining domestic reality with two indices methods. Nowadays experiment is still an essential way for identifying interchangeability. And gas interchangeability should not be confused with gas classification.
Keywords: AGA indices, weaver indices, multi-source, natural gas, interchangeability, applicability, gas blending, yellow flame, gas classification
Dynamic simulation and operation optimization of BOG compressors in LNG gasification plant
Zhang Yi, Ai Shaoping(PetroChina Tangshan Liquid Natural Gas Project Management Office, Tangshan 063000, Hebei，China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp53～57,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: An algorithm was proposed to optimize the operation of BOG compression based on dynamic simulation of LNG tank. It adopted empirical boil off rate model to predict the BOG production, used MILP formula to distribute the BOG compressor load, and made safety analysis by using dynamic simulation software. Aspen Dynamics software with PR state equation was also adopted insteading of simplified dynamic model to improve the accuracy. By the dynamic simulation of LNG tank pressure, the undulating quantities within safe pressure ranges when the BOG compressors were operated normally have been achieved. This algorithm is better than the algorithm used in routine processes, and is safer and more energy-efficient.
Keywords:dynamic simulation，optimization，operation，BOG，Aspen Dynamics
Research and application of dissolved sulfur agent for high-sulfur gas field
Huang Xuesong1,Wei Xing2（1.Production Engineering Technology Institute, Zhongyuan Oil Field, Puyang 457001, Henan,China;2.No.5 Production Plant,Zhongyuan Oil Field,Puyang 457001, Henan,China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp58～61,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The elemental sulfur deposition of high-sulfur gas field affected production directly and caused serious corrosion, which did great harm to the safe and efficient production of gas field. This paper researched the new dissolved sulfur agent system, which took DMDS as main agent and MAT as catalyst. At 50℃, 100 g agent could dissolve 50 g sulfur power in 1.25 minutes. The saturated dissolved sulfur content of agent is 241 g per 100 g, and it has a good compatibility with corrosion inhibitor. The dissolved sulfur agent field tests demonstrated that the broken down process efficient of element sulfur deposition is more than 90%.
Keywords: dissolved sulfur agent, DMDS, rate of dissolved sulfur, sulfur deposition broken down
Research on corrosion monitoring technology in high sour gas field
Zhang Qiang, Chen Wen, Yang Mengwei, et al(Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, Sichuan,China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp62～65,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In the process of gas transportation and desulfurization technology in high sour gas reservoir, the corrosion caused by CO2-H2O, H2S-H2O, CO2-H2S-H2O and R2NH-H2S-CO2-H2O,etc. can cause enormous losses, therefore, monitoring and safety evaluation for corrosion behavior is essential in sour gas well, which is of great significance for safety optimize the natural gas production. In this paper, based on investigation and study of corrosion and monitoring situation in high sour gas well, arranging of corrosion monitoring points, choices corrosion monitoring methods, division of corrosion loop and establishment of corrosion database and reliability evaluation etc. were introduced, corrosion monitoring technology for Longgang sour gas field was taken as an example.
Keywords: high sour gas field, H2S, CO2, corrosion monitoring, database
Simulation experiment and analysis of acid wormhole in dolomite
Yue Yingchun1,Guo Jianchun1,Wang Yiwei2（1.State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University; 2. Sinopec Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp66～69,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Acid wormhole can greatly improve the flow conditions of dolomite reservoir and increase the effect of acidizing stimulation, while the wormhole development is the key issue related to the optimization of acid system and construction parameters for this type of formation. This article compares the corrosion inhibition property of thickening acid with hydrochloric through experiment; aiming at the characteristics of natural fractures of dolomite reservoir, artificial fracture is made to simulate the flow and reaction feature in natural fracture, and the impact of acid injection flowrate, acid viscosity, temperature and acid amount on acid wormhole development is analyzed. The results show that the higher viscosity of thickening acid helps to increase the effective reaction distance and the expansion of acid wormhole; high reaction temperature limits the acidizing effect of improving formation permeability; there is an optimal value of acid volume, the excess amount of acid injection will only result in the waste of acid.
Keywords: dolomite, acidizing, thickening acid, acid wormhole, experiment
Study on synthesis and complexing properties of depressant for high pour point crude oil
Zheng Yancheng, Liwei Chenzi,Hou Lingling,et al(Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023, Hubei, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp70～73,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Suitable fatty alcohols were determined by component analysis of crude oil and the susceptibility of waxy crude oils to pour point depressant, higher alcohol acrylates were synthesized from acrylic acid and higher alcohol(C18~C22). Alcohol acrylate polymer (AM), alcohol acrylate-vinyl acetate copolymer (AMV) and alcohol acrylate-vinyl acetate-styrene（AVS）were synthesized as depressants for Weigang crude oil. AVS was chosen as the best one by testing the ability of depressing the pour point of crude oil, the synthetic condition of the three- monomer copolymer AVS were discussed by orthogonal test, and auxiliary agent EVA2 was screened out by depression efficiency and wax prevention. The results showed that the optimal synthetic conditions of AVS were as follows: the best molar ratio of alcohol acrylate , vinyl acetate and styrene was 1∶1∶0.5, the dosage of initiator was 1.2%, the monomer concentration of the reaction was 30% and the reaction time was 7h. The complex (CPR) with combination mass ratio of 1∶2 of AVS and EVA could reduce pour point for Weigang crude oil by 10℃ at amount of 0.5%, paraffine removing rate is as much as 40.62% with 0.3% CPR .
Keywords: high waxy crude oil, oil composition, higher alcohol, depressant, wax prevention
Research on ultralow interfacial tension flooding system of Chenzhuang crude oil
Wang Chong，Zhang Guicai，Zhang Jianqiang，et al(School of Petroleum Engineering，China University of Petroleum (East China)，Qingdao 266555,Shandong).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp74～78,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Dynamics interfacial tension determination experiment is carried out in single surfactant, surfactant combination systems and alkali + surfactant systems with Chenzhuang crude oil. The results show that CBET-13 with mass fraction of 0.05%-0.15% can make oil-water interfacial tension decreases to ultra low; While the mass ratio of SLPS and KAS is 4∶1, the total mass fraction is in the range of 0.075%-0.15%, the equilibrium interfacial tension value can decrease to magnititude 10-4 mN/m; with the total effective mass fraction of 0.1% and the mass ratio of CBET-13:CBET-17=9:1-6:4, the interfacial tension can decrease to ultra low; with the systems of alkali + surfactant （0.2%NaOH+(0.05-0.2%SLPS,0.025%-0.05%AS-0-
4,0.01%-0.075%AS-3-0,0.03%-0.09%HSBET-12）,oil-water interfacial tension can decrease to less than 10-3 mN/m. These flooding systems can be used as flooding formulas in Chenzhuang oilfield.
Keywords: capillary number, surfactant, alkali, combination system, ultralow interfacial tension
Investigation on oil displacement system of anionic gemini surfactant
Hu Xiaodong, Xiong Yujuan, Ouyang Xiangnan, et al(Yangtze University Petroleum Engineering College, Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Drilling and Recovery of Hubei Province, Jingzhou 434023,Hubei,China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp79～81,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The salt resistance and oil displacement performance of a new kind of gemini surfactant GA12-4-12 was investigated. This surfactant exhibits good surface activity in the aqueous blending solution of sodium chloride 2.35×105 mg/L and calcium chloride 1.5×104 mg/L, and its critical micelle concentration is 538.6 mg/L. The oilwater interface tension between the GA12-4-12 solution and thin oil decreases with the increase of the concentration of inorganic salt first and then tends to stable. It decreases to 2.2×10-3 mN/m at the NaCl concentration of 250 g/L. Under the highsalinity simulation formation water, the oil-water dynamic interfacial tensions of GA12-4-12 and its composite system SP can reach the ultra-low value (10-3 mN/m). Oil displacing simulation experiments show that GA12-4-12 and its composite system SP can increase oil recovery displaced water by 6.25% and 10.67%, respectively.
Keywords: anionic gemini surfactants, oil displacement surfactants, oil-water dynamic interfacial tension, surface tension, salt resistance, high salinity
Research on performance of Mannich bases and its combined corrosion inhibitor
Ren Xiaoguang1,2，Yang Jie1(1.Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029,China; 2.Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617,China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp82～85,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The inhibition effect of three kinds of single corrosion inhibitor: Mannich bases, thiourea, and sodium tungstate, and binary combinations of Mannich bases to 10# carbon steel in the simulated corrosive liquid using the CMB-4510A inhibitor rapid assessment instrument were studied. For high-acid and high-chloride crude oil, adding corrosion inhibitors are the most effective method of preventing corrosion of carbon steel. The results show that when the temperature is 50℃, pH6.0, Mannich bases, thiourea, sodium tungstate is used individually in the corrosive liquid have a certain effect of corrosion inhibition on 10# carbon steel, in which Mannich bases and sodium tungstate is superior to thiourea; the inhibition effects of binary combinations of Mannich bases compounded with thiourea and sodium tungstate are better than that of three inhibitors while used alone.
Keywords: corrosion, Mannich bases, thiourea, sodium tungstate, synergy
Cause and countermeasures of corrosion and scaling of the gathering system in Baiju oil field
Yu Baoshi,Wang Yuyan,Wang Weixu,et al(Production Technology Research Institute,PetroChina Zhejiang Oil Field Company).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp85～89,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Based on the methods of water quality analysis, corrosion electrochemistry analysis, and X-ray diffraction, the types of the corrosion and scaling of the gathering system are studied. The results indicated that the corrosion and scaling was taken place simultaneously with the main scale of calcium and magnesium carbonate. Meanwhile, it was found that the corrosion was electrochemical erosion controlled by the cathode process. The system had high DO, Cl- and SRB content, which was the main reason of causing corrosion. By researching the protect methods against corrosion and scaling, we proposed the chemical and physical methods as technical countermeasure based on the technical process and the research results, and achieved notable effect.
Keywords: gathering system, corrosion, scaling, mechanism, countermeasure
Synthesis and evaluation of a novel gemini quaternary ammonium as an antiswelling chemical
Zhang Xuan, Huang Zhiyu, Li Wen(College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,Southwest Petroleum University,Chengdu 610500,Sichuan,China).
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp90～91,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: A novel gemini quaternary ammonium was successfully synthesized with triethylamine (1a, Et3N) and epichlorohydrin (2a) as raw materials. The optimal reaction conditions was：n1b∶n2a∶n1a=1.2∶1∶1，reaction temperature 70℃, reaction time 7h, and the yield can reach 85.0%. In view of the antiswelling of the gemini quaternary ammonium, results of laboratory evaluation show that when the mass fraction of 3a in clay stabilizer solution was 1.0%, the antiswelling rate was up to 86.5%.
Keywords:clay stabilizer, anti-swelling, gemini quaternary ammonium,triethylamine, epichlorohydrin
Design and implementation of SCADA system for natural gas measurement
Wang Cunwei, Liao Deyun,Shi Yulin,et al(Natural Gas Production and Marketing Company, Zhongyuan Oilfield Corporation, Puyang 457162, Henan, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp92～95,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In order to realize the informatization of natural gas measuring data, the design and realization method of SCADA system for natural gas measurement on the basis of intranet were discussed in this article. The design optimizes the measurement model, completes network interconnection of each station's automatic measuring system and remote transmission sharing of measuring data. Users can realize real-time analysis, monitoring and management of field measuring data through B/S model.
Keywords: natural gas, automatic measurement, SCADA, intranet
Typical installation scheme design optimization of field instruments in high sour gas field
Wu Qinglun1, Du Shitao2, Liu Xiaoli1（1.PetroChina CDB High Sour Development Project；2.China Petroleum Engineering Company-SW）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp96～98,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: CDB high sour gas field project has stepped into detail design phase completely. In order to reduce the potential leakage point, realize intrinsic safety and develop high sour gas field environmental-friendly, combined with the experience of Chevron project & Puguang gas field, CDB engineering project design team optimizes the designing scheme of field instrument typical installation on the base of regular instrument installation scheme to minimize leakage and realize maintenance convenience. The national conventional instruments installation scheme and current field instruments typical installation scheme were compared from the view of design, and the optimization designing scheme suitable for high sour gas field project was recommended.
Keywords: high sour, field instrument, installation scheme, optimization
Failure analysis of sour natural gas gathering and transportation pipeline
Xiong Gang1, Wu Wenli2, Ji Weian1, et al（1.Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology，PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company; 2. Oil Refinery and Chemical Engineering Department，PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp99～101,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Due to the high operation risk of natural gas gathering and transportation pipelines, failure mode analysis is very important to the integrity management of pipelines. This paper introduces general failure mode of gathering and transportation pipelines, analyzes failure characteristic of sour natural gas gathering and transportation pipelines, and discusses the corrosion and blockage failure mechanisms of sour natural gas. In order to reduce operation risk of gathering and transportation pipelines, it also proposes the analysis method of regarding the blockage as failure mode of gathering and transportation pipelines.
Keywords: sour natural gas，gathering and transportation pipelines，failure，integrity management
Experimental study of suspended solids treatment in the oilfield sewage based on porous sintering metals
Pu Meiling1,Liu Xuhui2(1.Institute of Oil Production Technology, Sinopec Jianghan Oil Field, Wuhan 430025，Hubei,China；2. School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418,China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp102～10,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In view of the current treating status of the oilfield sewage containing suspended solids (SS), the SS in the oilfield sewage of Jianghan oilfield of China petrochemical was extracted, the parameters including the particle sizes and contents are tested. A set of test equipment is built up and the porous sintering metals are adopted as the filter material. The performance of sewage after filtrating the porous sintering metal under the gravity is tested, the effect of the sintering porous metal as the filter material in the suspended solids treating is verified. The results show that there are a great deal of blocks and filter cakes after the sewage permeating the porous sintering metal, the filtering effect is good, which provides methods and experimental basis for the treatment of the suspended solids in oilfield sewage.
Keywords: oilfield sewage, suspended solids, porous metal
Treatment of drilling fluid contamination by carbonate and bicarbonate in deep drilling
Liu Youyun1,2(1.College of Petroleum Engineering in China University of Petroleum,Dongying 257001, Shandong, China; 2.Shengli Petroleum Administration, Dongying 257001, Shandong, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp104～106,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The performance features of drilling fluid contaminated by carbonate and bicarbonate in deep well drilling were described and the treatment method to different contamination level was proposed. In view of easy collapse shale at the lower part of the Mesozoic strata, mudstone and coal-bearing strata lines, simply increasing the pH value and using CaO can't satisfy the need of down hole, the application of silicate treatment was proposed. The laboratory experiments and field applications have proved that the use of silicate can not only deal with pollution of carbonate and bicarbonate, but also play an effective role in preventing collapse, which ensure that drilling fluid has a good ability of rheology behavior and anticollapse.
Keywords: carbonate, bicarbonate, drilling fluid contamination, silicate, hole stability
Application research and practice of safety integrity level
Yuan Shuhai, Song Bin, Li Fanshu, et al(Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology of PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company,Chengdu 610213,Sichuan,China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp107～109,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Safety Integrity Level (SIL) assessment basis, function, method and application cases are introduced in this paper. According to the different needs of newly built and constructed projects, different purposes and functions of SIL assessment are described. Then, necessity of SIL assessment is put forward combining with the engineering practice, and the rationality and effectiveness of constructing SIS are expounded referencing to related standards. The next, the basic application method of SIL assessment is discussed with practical engineering cases. At last, the application trend of SIL evaluation is expounded.
Keywords: instrument, control, safety, risk, SIS, SIL, HAZOP
Application of preliminary hazard analysis in natural gas boosting project
Yang Qin1,Xu Qi2,Tang Wei1,et al(1. Safety, Environmental Protection and Technical Supervision Institute of PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company；2. Southern Sichuan Gas District of PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp110～113,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In this paper, the major hazards and the relevant causes for the piston type natural gas compressor are first analyzed to judge the hazard level and to put forward the hazard reduction and control measures, and then preliminary hazard analysis(PHA) as an advanced hazard reduction and control measure applied in natural gas boosting project is introduced, and the analysis results are available for reference in safety assessment and safety production management.
Keywords: preliminary hazard analysis (PHA), natural gas compressor
Environmental risk assessment of fire and explosion of oil storage
Guo Xiaofang , Wang Changzheng(Northwest Research Institute of Mining & Metallurgy, Baiyin 730900, Gansu，China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.1,pp114～118,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In view of existing environmental risk in oil storage，the impact of thermal radiation and shock wave due to oil tank explosion is predicted and evaluated，and the influences of toxic smoke produced from fire accidents on surrounding environment are predictively analyzed.
Keywords: oil storage，fire, explosion，toxic smoke