CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS
Concrete measures and key points for the allocation metering of natural gas and condensate in the upstream area
Philip A Lawrence(Cameron Measurement Systems Inc.,Houston，USA).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp125～139,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Hydrocarbon gas, oils, and condensates from offshore and onshore concessions or business units are often transported via shared pipelines to shared main treatment or storage facilities. The concessions are often owned by, or licensed to a number of oil companies. At the main treatment facilities, hydrocarbon fluids such as gas and condensate are processed to meet sales and fiscal specifications. The gas is then sold to shippers in terms of standardized volumes (standard cubic-meters) or combustion energy (joules), and the gas condensate is usually sold in terms of standard volume (standard cubic meters) or mass (kilograms or tonnes). All the hydrocarbon gas and condensate sold at these main treatment facilities and associated monies should be allocated back to the individual concessions and then ultimately traceable back to the individual reservoirs or wells that generated them! When hydrocarbon gas from two or more entry sources (e.g. two or more different entities) is commingled and processed in a common pipeline and terminal or processing system and the sources have different ownership and/or operate under different tax regimes, then a gas allocation system is needed.
Keywords: natural gas, condensate,gas allocation system
Uncertainty evaluation of analytical bias for on-line gas chromatograph
Chen Gengliang（Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology,PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company,Chengdu 610213,Sichuan,China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp140～147,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The distribution range of analytical bias in energy determination systems is that of its uncertainty. In the process of establishing traceability by reference gas mixture(RGM)，individual results do not invalidate and large number of samples of different composition are only invalidated by a specified procedure in certain composition range. For guaranteeing reliability and accuracy of analytical results，methods of chemometrics must be used in simulation of validation. Results of Monte Carlo simulation(MCM) demonstrated that analytical bias and uncertainty of gross heating value can meet the requirements of British regulation and standard，when methane content in natural gas grid system is that of 78%~98%.
Keywords: natural gas，energy determination，analytical bias，uncertainty，Monte Carlo simulation(MCM)
Comparative analysis of operation situation on the five extended Claus sulfur recovery units
Fu Jingqiang，Wan Yixiu(Chongqing Natural Gas Purification Plant General, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp148～155,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Five extended Claus sulfur recovery processes including CBA, MCRC, SuperClaus, Clinsulf-SDP and CPS applied in sulfur recovery units of PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company are minutely analyzed. Based on the comprehensive comparison of the process, energy consumption, problems after commissioning, difficulty level and adaptability of the operation, the results showed that each of them has its own specialty, and can reach the design value of sulfur yield as well as successful operation. CPS has the advantages of CBA and MCRC, and can make the best use of flue gas waste heat for lowering energy consumption. SuperClaus is a stable process which has stable sulfur yield and does not request imported key equipments, it also has the advantage of less problems after putting into operation. As the Clinsulf-SDP is a kind of isothermal reaction, the Claus reaction could be more completely. However, it also has the disadvantages of high requirements for the equipment performance and inconvenience of replacing the catalyst.
Keywords: sulfur recovery, CBA, MCRC, SuperClaus, Clinsulf-SDP, CPS, comparative analysis
Discussion on energy saving of molecular sieve dehydration unit
Li Ming, Wei Zhiqiang, Zhang Lei, et al（China Petroleum Engineering Co.,Ltd. Southwest Company, Chengdu 610017,Sichuan,China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp156～160,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Taking the design data and operation parameter of actual molecular sieve dehydration unit as example, the main technique process, equipment design and adjustment of the operation data are introduced in detail. It gives reference to similar design of molecular sieve dehydration unit and provides ideas for reducing energy consume of molecular sieve dehydration unit.
Keywords: molecular sieve dehydration unit, energy saving, process scheme, equipment design, operation parameter
Jilake device operation optimization scheme selection
Zhao Junyan1, Cai Gongxian2（1.China Liaohe Petroleum Engineering Company Limited in Bazhou Tarim Branch;2.Xinjiang Markor Chemical Industry Co.,Ltd）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp161～163,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: During the later development period of Jilake condensate gas field, both the production of oil and gas and the pressure decrease constently, production wells were closed or stopped successively. At present, the actual production capacity has larger difference with the original design, both the natural gas treatment devices of Triassic and Carboniferous are both under low load operation, the equipment capacity has not yet been fully used, which cause the devices′ operation cost high and economy poor. To change the production situation, the natural gas of Triassic and Carboniferous are considered uniformly by pressure mechanism, the process is simplified and the operation parameters of the two devices are adjusted appropriately. The built facilities were used best to treat raw material gas for meeting the requirements of water and hydrocarbon dew point of the natural gas transportation.
Keywords: Jilake, Triassic system, Carboniferous system, natural gas process, optimization, scheme selection
Degradation and revival of alcohol amine desulfurization solution
Nie Chongbin(Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp164～168,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: During gas treating，alcohol amine solution are degraded as the existent of the impurities in gas. The main degradation products are heat stable salts（HSS）.The degradation of amine solution leads to the decrease of desulfurization capacity and removal efficiency. As the content of heat stable salts is increasing, it may lead to foam and loss of solution. Meanwhile, as some of the heat stable salts are acidic, they may lead to corrosion and blockage in pipes and equipments. It is important to revive the amine solution to eliminate the degradation products. The degradation process of amine solution and the formation process of heat stable salts and its main influences are introduced. Reviews of several revival processes of alcohol amine desulfurization solution are presented.
Keywords: alcohol amine solution, degradation, heat stable salts, revival
Research and prepare of a new pour point depressant for biodiesel
An Wenjie, Zhang Xinling, Huang Qing, et al（PetroChina Lanzhou Lubricating Oil R&D Institute, Lanzhou 730060, Gansu, China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp169～171,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: A new polymer methylacrylic acid high-carbon ester with α-hydroxy structure is synthesized by using methylacrylic acid, higher alcohol, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, et al. The characterization and freeze-point effect is studied.The results show that cold filter plugging points (CFPP) of cotton biodiesel and 0# diesel produced from Lanzhou Refinery are reduced by 5 ℃ respectively when the adding amount is 0.1% and 0.05%.
Keywords: biodiesel, pour point depressant, cold filter plugging point
Optimization for hydrogen generation process condition of kerosene water reforming by response surface method
Tian Xu, Guo Wali, Zhang Tao, et al（Shenyang University of Chemical Technology,Shenyang 110142,Liaoning,China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp172～175,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: On the basis of single factor experiment，the influence factors of hydrogen generation of kerosene water reforming were optimized by Box-Behnken mode of response surface method，a quadratic polynomial regression model of reaction was established, and the variance and reliability of the model were analyzed. The results showed that when the kerosene liquid space velocity was 0.066 h-1, water carbon ratio was 20.2 and the reaction temperature was 681℃, the hydrogen yield achieved the highest level. The predicted maximum hydrogen yield was 33.613 mol/mol, which was almost in consistent with the actual hydrogen yield of 34.028 mol/mol. Therefore, the model was valid and reliable.
Keywords: hydrogen，kerosene, reforming, response surface
Prediction of CO2 frosting temperature in CH4-CO2 binary system
Xiong Xiaojun, Lin Wensheng, Gu Anzhong(Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp176～178,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: When the temperature is lower than triple point of natural gas, CO2 is likely to frost in the cryogenic natural gas liquefaction process. A precise prediction of CO2 frosting temperature in CH4-CO2 binary system will contribute to the study of CO2 removal from natural gas by sublimation. The calculation of CO2 frosting temperature in CH4-CO2 binary system based on gas-solid phase equilibrium model was conducted by PR equation of state (EOS). The predicted value of PREOS, HYSYS simulator and Approximate Conditions of Solid CO2 Formation chart were compared with experimental data, the results showed that the three methods were in good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, according to experimental data, a empirical function was proposed to predict the frosting temperature of CO2 in CH4-CO2 binary system for rough estimate.
Keywords: carbon dioxide, frosting, gas-solid phase equilibrium, LNG
Analysis of fossil fuel situation and the proposal to low-carbon development in Sichuan province
Chen Lan, Qu Gang, Kong Qiuchan, et al (School of Chemical Engineering of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan,China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp179～182,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: This paper analyzed production and consumption situation of fossil fuel in Sichuan province. It showed that fossil fuel in Sichuan suffered from insufficiency, low quality, difficult mining, contradiction between production-consumption structure and energy storage structure, high intensity and low utilization in energy consumption and high carbon dioxide emission. Under the low-carbon development with the consideration of economics and environment，the proposals for fossil fuel development in Sichuan province are put forward.
Keywords: fossil fuel，production，consumption，utilization ratio，carbon dioxide emission
Improvement of ethylene glycol regeneration process at low feedstock situation
Jiang Hong, Zheng Xianying（Southwest Petroleum University，Chengdu 610500，Sichuan,China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp183～186,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The problems of glycol foaming, scaling and blocking of regeneration equipment caused by incomplete alcohol hydrocarbon separation, glycol soluble salts gathering were analyzed and the solutions were proposed. The original design of glycol regeneration process in Kelameili gas field is so simple that the regeneration system can not be operated properly，resulting in column fouling, equipment scaling, high temperature of lean liquor, and the regenerated glycol can not meet industrial specifications. In order to guarantee stable and efficient running of glycol regeneration unit in Kelameili gas field, based on the analysis of existing problems, regeneration unit are simulated, process parameters are optimized, and high efficient equipment are selected, and the effective improvement program are proposed.
Keywords: glycol，regeneration process，low feedstock situation， alcohol hydrocarbon separation，scaling，improvement process
Synthesize and evaluation of nano-composite emulsion film-forming agent NCJ-1 for drilling fluid
He Mingmin1, Pu Xiaolin2, Su Junlin2, et al(1. Chuanxi Drilling Company of PetroChina Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Company,Chengdu 610000,Sichuan,China;2. Petroluem Engineering Institute of Southwest Petroleum University,Chengdu 610500,Sichuan,China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp187～190,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: According to the request of action mechanism of nano-composite emulsion film formation，taking 2-acrylamide-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), acrylamide(AM), acrylic acid(AA), styrene(St) as organic texture monomers and modified nano-SiO2 as inorganic texture monomers, a nano-composite emulsion film-forming agent NCJ-1 was successfully synthesized by the principle of ultrasonic mini-emulsion and the method of water-soluble free radical polymerization reaction. Taking filtration rate of drilling fluid which contains film-forming as the evaluation criterion, the best polymerization conditions are optimized: the emulsor dosage is 0.02 mol, the mass concentration of total monomer concentration is 10%, modified nano-SiO2 is 2%, ultrasonic time is 20 mins under the power of 400 W, reaction temperature is 60 ℃. The result shows that it can form a semi-permeable diaphragm on the surface of the core by adding 10% of NCJ-1, the membrane efficiency is 58.2%. The viscosity and shearing force showed little change, and rheology of drilling fluid system keeps stable after heated at 220 ℃, lasted for 16 hours. The fluid system has remarkable fluid loss effect, and the HTHP filtration rate is only 27 mL.
Keywords: nanometer, drilling fluid, film-forming agent, synthesize, evaluation
Experimental study on increasing of the bonding strength at cement-formation interface by mud cake solidification method under different conditions
Liu Haoya, Shao Chun, Dong Lifei, et al( Faculty of Earth Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, Hubei,China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp191～195,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Imitation method is used in laboratory to study mud cake solidification for increasing the bonding strength of cement-formation interface under different temperatures and different cake thickness. The results show that the bonding strength of cement-formation interface increased by 230.86％~4 538.74％and 757.30％~106 537.50％ respectively when the cake thickness are 0.5mm and 1.0mm at the curing temperature 45 ℃; the bonding strength of cement-formation interface increased by 656.28％~1979.69％and 331.19％~5 258.82％ respectively when the cake thickness are 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm at the curing temperature 80 ℃. Finally, main cause of mud cake solidification for increasing the bonding strength of cement-formation interface is investigated by infrared spectrum test results and influencing factors is analyzed.
Keywords: cement-formation interface, mud cake solidification, bonding strength, infrared spectrum, influencing factors
Evaluation of downhole tube corrosion and research on corrosion inhibitor in Northeastern Sichuan Gas District
Chen Wen, Zhang Qiang, Jin Hong, et al(Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, Sichuan).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp196～199,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: After gathering corrosion materials from fieldwater reinjection well and gas production well with water in Northeastern Sichuan Gas District, corrosion evaluation experiment was done under static condition and dynamic condition. The experiment results show that the corrosion of the two wells were serious, corrosion rate was over 0.1 mm/a, and obvious local corrosion was found. A corrosion inhibitor screening evaluation to the two wells was done under the same experiment conditions as above. It was found that the corrosion inhibitor CT2-15 can effectively control corrosion rate less than 0.1 mm/a, improve surface condition of corrosion coupon, and inhibit local corrosion. Physiochemical performance evaluation result shows that CT2-15 has good heat resistance and compatibility with produced water. It will not form emulsification with fieldwater and is fit to be used in field.
Keywords: acidic gas, corrosion rate, local corrosion, corrosion inhibitor
Discussion on the corrosion prevention effect evaluation of wet gas pipelines internal coated corrosion inhibitor
Li Hongzhen, Liu Zhengxiong,Xie Liyang,et al(Chongqing Gas District, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp200～203,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In natural gas pipeline transmission system, the internal corrosion of pipeline occurs due to H2S, CO2 and saturated water. Therefore, the protection measures should be taken to the pipeline internal wall. Based on the transmission features, detection situation and internal corrosion condition of Zhuqu pipeline in Chuangdong gas field, the corrosion prevention scheme of internal coated inhibitor and the evaluation method are established, and the quantity of internal coated inhibitor, velocity, period and evaluation method are acquired through the field application of internal coated inhibitor. The thesis aims to guide the establishment of technical scheme for pipeline internal coated inhibitor corrosion prevention and to provide technical supporting for the safety development of Chuanyu gas field.
Keywords: pipeline, internal coated corrosion inhibitor, effect, analysis
Study on the influence factor of diverting performance of self-diverting acid
Wang Xiaohong1,Liu Youquan1,Liao Jun2,et al(1. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, Sichuan;2. Chongqing Gas District, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company,Chongqing 400021,China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp204～206,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The diverting performance influence factors in temperature, permeability multiple, acid formula and the injection flow rate of the self-diverting acid with double-core flow test are studied. The experimental results show that the diverting range and diverting extent decrease with increasing of the temperature and permeability multiple, and will improve with increasing of the adding amount of diverting agent. The different injection flow rate also affects the diverting performance, when the flow rate is low, the flow rate increasing is beneficial to improve the diverting effect, on the contrary, if the flow rate is too high, it will be disadvantageous to the diverting performance.
Keywords: diverting acid, diverting performance, influence factor
Study and application of acidic carboxymethyl guar gum fracturing fluid in Zhenbei Chang 8 formation
Lv Haiyan1,2,Wu Jiang1,2,Xue Xiaojia1,2,et al(1.Oil&Gas Technology Research Institute, PetroChina Changqing Oilfield Company, Xi’an 710021,Shannxi,China; 2. Low Permeability Reservoirs E＆D National Engineering Laboratory，Xi’an 710021,Shannxi,China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp207～209,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: A new kind of acidic carboxymethyl guar gum fracturing fluid is developed. Experimental results show that advantages of this fracturing fluid by cross bonding at acidic conditions are as follows: good rheological behavior, gel breaking completely, gel breaking liquid viscosity of 3.44 mPa·s, residue of 144 mg/L, and little damage to formation, etc. It has been proved to have obvious effects in creasing yield by successful fracturing in six wells in Zhenbei Chang 8 formation and this fracturing fluid is very suitable for alkaline sensitivity reservoir transformation.
Keywords: carboxymethyl guar gum，fracturing fluid, rheological property, damage to formation
Research on formation sensitivity in the Daniudi gasfield reinjection well
Li Jianshan1,2 , Lin Anbang1, Gan Xuhong3 （1.Graduate School of Southwest Petroleum University; 2.Construction Department of North China Branch,SINOPEC; 3. Technical Information Division, Oil Production Technology Research Institute, Jianghan Oilfield Company,Sinopec）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp210～212,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In Daniudi gas field, the reservoir structure of W-4 sewage reinjection well is fine and close. The core porosity is 10% ~ 15%，which belongs to low porosity, low permeability sandstone reservoir. During the process of water’s reinjection, injection pressure increases sharply, which affects the normal injection. Based on the problem of reinjection pressure rapid increasing of the well, the formation sensitivity was studied experimentally. Results show that W-4 well’s reservoir bed is weak velocity sensitivity，strong water sensitivity and weak alkaline sensitivity, and the core permeability decreased gradually with the water content increasing, which affected the injection production. On the basis of the experimental results, the countermeasures to solve the problem of pressure rise are put forward which has guiding significance for solving problem of pressure rise.
Keywords: Daniudi gasfield, reinjection well, velocity sensitivity, water sensitivity, alkaline sensitivity, permeability
Experimental study on the WD flooding system for conventional heavy oil
Zhang Jihua(Binnan Oil Production Factory of Shengli Oilfield Company, SINOPEC, Binzhou 256600, Shandong, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp213～215,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Aimed at the properties of fast increase in composite water cut and low level of recovery efficiency during the water-flooding treatment of conventional heavy oil reservoirs in Binnan, Bin 31-11 well cluster has been chosen as the experimental plot and a WD system has been experimentally studied in this cluster. Performance evaluation and displacement plan has been studied systematically. Experimental data including the solubility, compatibility, absorbance and the influence of chemicals on the dehydration effect have demonstrated that the WD system can effectively reduce crude oil viscosity, improve oil flooding efficiency, water flooding effectiveness and the recovery ratio of conventional heavy oil.
Keywords: water-flooding, conventional heavy oil, WD flooding system
Research and practice of large scale fracturing technology in offshore exploration well
Liu Ning, Chen Ziwei, Ning Xiaoying(Dagang Oilfield Petroleum Engineering Research Institute,Tianjin Dagang 300280).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp216～218,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: On August 9, 2010, large-scale fracturing implement was successfully carried out to exploratory well Binhai 6 well by Dagang Oilfield Company in the waters of the Gulf of Bohai with low damage super guar gum fracturing fluid system and the matching technology. Oil output is 103.6 m3/d, and gas output is 29 000 m3/d. The preliminary exploration achievements are not only expanded, but also valuable experience is provided for offshore oil well fracturing technology application. The successes and shortcomings of the fracturing are discussed, which are a reference to offshore oil well fracturing in future.
Keywords: offshore, fracturing, technology, fracturing fluid
Discussion on LNG interchangeability and natural gas quality management in China
Zhang Yangjun, Qin Chaokui, Liu Pengjun(College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp219～222,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has boomed recently to account for 30.5% of global natural gas trades in 2010. In some coastal cities in China, LNG has being introduced into pipeline systems. But natural gas quality specification has never been managed in a scientific way, and there are no detailed technical specification and reliable methods to predict interchangeability. The performances of 32 sampled gas cookers under 11 different gases were experimentally measured to explore interchangeability between LNG and pipeline natural gas. The results show that excessive CO emissions are likely to be caused by the introduction of LNG. Systematic researches are urgently essential to be carried out in the field of natural gas quality specification, in order to avoid expensive cost for conversions in future.
Keywords: LNG, natural gas, gas quality, interchangeability
Isolated preparation, identify and determination of resol resin dimer
Li Zhenquan, Cao Xulong, Song Xinwang, et al( Geological and Scientific Research Institute of Shengli Oilfield, SINOPEC, Dongying 257015, Shandong, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp223～225,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The compound of resol resin dimer was isolated and prepared from resol resin crosslinker by gel permeation chromatography. The obtained fraction was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with purity over 95%, and identified by mass spectrometry, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR and DEPT. With the compound as standard substance, the content of dimer in samples used in Shengli oilfield was 117.4 g/L under the following chromatographic conditions: C18 column, gradient elution of methanol/water and detection wavelength 270 nm. The results indicate that the method is an accurate and reliable technique for determing resol resin dimer in the samples.
Keywords: resol resin, dimer, determination, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance
Determination of iron，copper，nickel and vanadium in catalytic cracking raw oil by microwave digestion atomic absorption spectrometry
Gao Wenli，Rong Lili(Daqing Petrochemical Research Center,PetroChina Co. Ltd.，Daqing 163714，Heilongjiang, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp226～228,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The catalytic cracking raw oil was treated with microwave digestion process to be dissolved in water solution. And iron，copper，nickel and Vanadium in the solution were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The interference of coexisting elements was measured and then eliminated by the addition of lanthanum-based inhibitor. The results of a precision experiment showed that the recovery of various element was 96%~105% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5%.
Keywords: microwave digestion，atomic absorption spectrometry， catalytic cracking raw oil，iron，copper，nickel，vanadium
Study on the diffusion regularity of H2S under different obstacle slope
Zhang Baozhu1, Wang Xiuhong2, Gao Jun1，et al (1. China Petroleum Pipeline Domestic Division, Langfang 065000,Hebei, China; 2. Synfuels China Engineering Co., Ltd, Beijing 101407, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp229～231,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Aimed at the blowout accident under complex landform, five obstacle models with different slope were set including twenty degree, thirty degree, forty degree and fifty degree in order to study the spread regularity of the H2S. Computational Fluid Dynamics（CFD） software Fluent was used for the simulation of H2S diffusion. Then the concentration values of H2S about the windward side and the leeward side under the condition of wind were obtained from results of the simulation. The results show the obstacle models with different slop have different influence to H2S spread when H2S diffused to stable state. First, the concentration of H2S will increase on the ground as the slope becomes steeper no matter at the windward or leeward side. Second, the concentration of H2S at the windward side has a larger difference compared with the leeward side. The results of the simulation provide some guidance about the diffusion regularity of H2S at the complex landform and the selection of the location about the well site.
Keywords: blowout accident, H2S, simulation, obstacle slope, diffusion density
The experiment of oilfield wastewater treatment by Fenton reagent
Ma Lihui1, Du Guoyong2，Lei Bo2（1. Huayou Industry Company, LPEB, Panjin 124010，Liaoning, China; 2. School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, Sichuan, China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp232～234,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The organic pollutants in oilfield wastewater are difficult to degrade. It’s hard to decrease COD to below 50 mg/L by using common methods. Fenton Reagent is used as oxidant to treat COD in oilfield wastewater. Temperature, pH, reaction time, the concentration of H2O2, and the Fe2+ concentration are experimented to determine their effects on removal of COD in oilfield water. The best single factor has been determined in the experiment. The Orthogonal experiment shows there are four combined conditions which can be satisfied to decrease COD value to below 50 mg/L. At last, the practical application of this method in oilfield wastewater treatment is discussed.
Keywords: oilfield water, COD, fenton reagent, oxidation
Technology and experiment of baking-free bricks by drilling solid waste
Lu Linfeng1，Yi Chang1，Guan Yong2,et al(1. Safety, Environment & Technology Supervision Research Institute, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company;2. Qionglai Gas Extraction Section of Northwestern Sichuan Gas District, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp235～238,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: It is a new technology to produce baking-free bricks by using drilling solid waste utilization as source. Through the treatment of drilling solid waste at five well sites, the brick products can meet the requirements of standard JC/T 422-2007 Non-fired Rubbish Gangue Brick, and immerse index can meet the first class requirement of the national standard GB 8978-1996 Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard. This technology provides a new reliable source utilization way for drilling solid waste management, which is of great significance in clean production of oil and gas drilling.
Keywords: drilling solid waste, harmless, recycling, baking-free brick, economic efficiency
Analysis of the safety integrity level of ESD in natural gas purification plant
Gao Jin1，Pu Hao2, Liu Fuquan1,et al (1.Chongqing Natural Gas Purification Plant General of PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company,Chongqing Changshou 401259,Sichuan,China；2. Nanchong Refining and Chemical Plant General of PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company,Nanchong 637000,China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp239～242,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The definition of safety integrity level of ESD and the applied safety standard is mainly represented, the existing problems in the ESD current security situation of the 7 branches of the Chongqing Natural Gas Purification Plant General by illustrating are also analyzed. Based on SH/T 3018-2003 Design Code for Safety Instrumented System in Petrochemical Industry, SY/T 10045-2003 Application of Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industries, HG/T 20511-2000 Design Code for Signal Alarm and Safety Interlock System, the safety integrity level of ESD and some relevant suggestions for its improvement are proposed to increase the safety integrity level of ESD, hence, it can ensure the smooth running of natural gas purification device.
Keywords: ESD, safety integrity level, standard, rectification measures
Energy saving optimizing of gas fractionation unit
Zhu Yuqin,Qin Qianqian,Bian Wen,et al(Xi’an Shiyou University, Xi’an 710065, Shaanxi,China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.2,pp243～245,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: With the further development of energy saving, new energy-saving equipment and technology have grown more completely, problem of chemical process system about how to recover energy effectively in oil refining industry, etc. is raised. It is of great significance for saving energy and reducing consumption. Based on the study on several sets of gas fractionation units, the heat exchanger networks are optimized by the integration technology of process energy and heat pump distillation process is put forward. The results show that the process is reliable, feasible and significant.
Keywords: heat pump distillation, gas fractionation unit，energy saving, optimization