CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS
Synthesis of a new cold flow improver ASM and study on the diesel sensitivity
Li Ruili1，Zhang Ying2，Xu Chunming1（1. State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum，Beijing 102249, China; 2. Refinery of Yumen Oilfield Company, CNPC, Yumen 735200, Gansu ,China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp453～456,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: A terpolymer ASM is synthesized by acrylate ester(A), styrene(S) maleic anhydride(MA) as raw materials. The effects of optimum reaction conditions on the properties of ASM and the effectiveness of ASM on cold flow improver are investigated. And also, terpolymers structure was charactered by IR spectroscopy. The results showed that the optimum reaction conditions is as follows: n(A)∶n(S)∶n(M)=5∶1∶1, the reaction temperature is 80 ℃, reaction time is 6 h, and benzoyl peroxide dosage is 1.0%.Under this condition，the CFPP of diesel can be reduced 6 ℃ by using the obtained ternary polymer.
Keywords: terpolymer ASM, diesel sensitivity, distillation range, mass hydrocarbon composition，cold filter plugging point(CFPP)
Experimental study on deep removal of organic sulfide from refinery
Tang Xiaodong1, 3, Xu Weiwei2, Li Jingjing3, et al(1. State Key Laboratory of Oil and Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, Sichuan,China;2. China Petroleum Engineering Huabei Company, Renqiu 062552,Hebei；3.College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,Southwest Petroleum University,Chengdu 610500,Sichuan,China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp457～460,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: This paper introduces a new selfmade complexing desulfurizer (TS-2), and inspects its effects on the deep desulfurization of refinery C4 feed gas. The results show that under atmospheric pressure, when the volume of packed bed is 100 mL and the amount of the liquid paraffin is 40 mL, the optimal performance parameters are as follows: the dosage of TS-2 is 10 mL, the temperature is 35 ℃ and C4 air velocity is 100 h-1. TS-2 can help reduce the total sulfide of the refinery C4 from 198.3 mg/m3 to below 0.1 mg/m3, and meet the purification index demand of poly-1-butene which requires that the sulfide should be less than 1.0 mg/m3. Under the optimal condition, the saturated sulfur capacity is 52 g/L. TS-2 can be regenerated by heating and nitrogen stripping, and can be circularly used 10 times under laboratory conditions，5 times is recommended.This paper puts forward a kind of operation technology, which has three absorbers for the deep removal of organic sulfide in refinery C4, and has feasibility of industrial applications.
Keywords: refinery C4, removal of organic sulfur, complexing, TS-2
Application of thermal deaeration installation in the CCR unit
Guo Feng, Wu Zhongli, Tian Jinguang, et al(Yan’an Petrochemical Works, Yan’an 727406, Shaanxi, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp461～463,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The thermal deaeration installation is successfully applied on the 1200×103 t/a CCR unit of Yan’an Petrochemical Works. The technical bottleneck of the higher pressure drop of the pre-hydrogenation reactor of continuous reforming unit is solved, the frequently replacement and skimming of the catalyst of pre-hydrogenation unit are avoided，which can effectively ensure the smooth and long-term operation of the equipment.
Keywords: thermal deaeration installation, CCR,pressure drop, pre-hydrogenation
Study on element sulfur corrosion of hydrogenation jet fuel
Pan Guangcheng，Li Tao，Wu Mingqing（Research Institute of Petroleum Processing，Beijing 100083,China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp464～468,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The silver strip and copper strip corrosion caused by element sulfur of hydrogenation jet fuels from four sources (produced from different crude oil by different hydrogenation technologies in different refineries) is studied. The results show that there was no marked qualitative difference between four species of hydrogenation jet fuels in the element sulfur corrosion test under the air free condition; the content of element sulfur from 0.5 μg/g to 1.0 μg/g in the hydrogenation jet fuels can cause silver strip corrosion to Class 1, the content of element sulfur from 1.5 μg/g to 2.0 μg/g in the hydrogenation jet fuels can cause copper strip corrosion to Class 1b；the process of storage can greatly reduce silver strip corrosion and copper strip corrosion of jet fuels with element sulfur,especially for copper strip corrosion.
Keywords: jet fuel, hydrogenation, corrosion, element sulfur
Analysis and solution of acidulated TEG in PY30-1 Gasfield
Guo Xiaowei, Miao Jian, Yao Rui(PY30-1DPP Panyu Gasfield Operations of CNOOC Ltd, Shenzhen 518067, Guangdong，China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp469～472,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: This paper introduces the dehydration and regeneration process of TEG in PY30-1DPP(drilling production platform). Acidification of TEG occurred after a period of operation, which not only influenced the efficiency of dehydration, but also led to an increase of the moisture content in the external transported dry gas. Chromatography is used to analyze the components of the lean and rich TEG. Causes and proposal measures are proposed, and good effects are achieved. The solving of the acidifying TEG reduces the TEG loss, ensures TEG process running smoothly, and provides guidance for similar projects.
Keywords: Panyu Gasfield, natural gas, TEG, dehydration of TEG, acidifying
Study on reducing SO2 emissions of the tail gas from sulfur recovery unit
Jin Zhou(Refining Second Unit, Zhenhai Refinery & Chemical Co, Ltd., SINOPEC,Ningbo 315207, Zhejiang, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp473～478,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: From the process management, instrumentation management, process setting, catalysts configuration and other aspects, the existing problems of sulfur dioxide emissions of sulfur recovery unit are analyzed. Then the countermeasures are put forward to ensure that the emission concentration of sulfur dioxide from sulfur recovery unit can meet the new requirements of the national standard Integrated Emission Standard of Air Pollutants that will soon be issued.
Keywords: sulfur recovery units, on line analyzer, catalyst, sulfur dioxide, emission standard
Study on sulphur recovery catalyst CT6-4B
Shan Baogui, Dai Xuehai, Yi Fengcheng(Dalian West Pacific Petrochemical Company Limited, Dalian 116600, Liaoning, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp479～483,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: According to the running situation and catalyst application on sulfur recovery unit of Dalian West Pacific Petrochemical Co. Ltd (WEPEC), the change law of sulphur recovery catalyst was studied. By further calibration and optimization to operation parameters, the operation stability of the unit improves greatly, which reached optimal levels of domestic similar sulphur recovery unit and some indexes reached the evenhanded excellent standard of international refining industry. The applications data indicates that the catalyst CT6-4B series have a higher activity and stability. According to the material balance of sulphur recovery and tail gas treatment, the sulfur recovery rate is high.
Keywords: sulphur recovery, catalyst, activity, CT6-4B
Synthesis and characterization of IM-5 molecular sieve hollow spheres
Chen Xiaogang, Yang Weiya, Shen Zhiqi, et al（Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals, SINOPEC, Fushun 113001, Liaoning, China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp484～487,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: IM-5 molecular sieve hollow sphere has been prepared by adding the surfactant into hydrothermal system. The molecular sieve hollow sphere is about 6 μm in diameter, the hole wall is composed of nano IM-5 particles with sizes of 30 nm～150 nm, that resulting in many meso-and macro-textures. A BET specific surface area of 366 m2/g was calculated by nitrogen adsorption measurement. At the same time, there are 3 narrow pore sizes distribution in micropore region. The formation of hollow spheres is related to the interaction and micelles mechanism of charges in the surfactant and precursor particles of IM-5.
Keywords: IM-5, molecular sieve, hollow spheres, synthesis, characterization
Comparative analysis of natural gas season peaking in North and East China
Guo Jieqiong1, Qiu Jing2, Du Xueping2 (1.PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline Company, Shanghai 200122, China;2. Beijing Gas Group Co., Ltd, Beijing 100035, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp488～490,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: North and East of China have a large structural gap among natural gas customers (in this paper, the selected typical cities are Beijing, Tianjin in North China,and Shanghai, Nanjing, Zhejiang in East China). The comparative analysis of different regions were carried out, including the load duration characteristics, theoretical natural gas storage capacity of seasonal peak shaving, peak shaving costs and other issues. The calculation shows that the north and east regions account for 31% and 4% of annual gas consumption of the theoretical seasonal peak shaving gas storage capacity respectively, seasonal peak shaving cost of natural gas in North China was approximately 7.8 times that of East China. Therefore, it is proposed that developing gas-fired peak shaving power plant and seasonal peak shaving LNG liquefaction plant in North China during the non-heating season, which will improve the level of comprehensive utilization of natural gas and change the load duration characteristics to reduce peaking costs.
Keywords: urban gas, gas peak shaving, seasonal peak shaving, gas law, load duration curve, peak shaving costs
The impacts of aviation jet fuel on the volume swell of the fuel tank sealants
Liu Hua, Chen Kai, Qian Jing, et al(The Second Research Institute of Civil Aviation Administration of China，Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp491～494,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The impacts of aromatic contents in the aviation jet fuel on the volume swell of fuel tank polythioether and polysulfide sealants were studied systematically in this research. The experimental results revealed the volume expansion rate of sealant was dramatically increased with the increasing of the aromatic content in the fuel. The volume of the PR1440 polysulfide manganese cured sealant was shrunk when the sealant was soaked in the aviation fuel with aromatic volume content less than 8% for 28 days at 93 ℃. The volume of other tested polysulfide and polythioether sealants was never shrunk at the same operating conditions. The shrinkage of the specific sealant material soaked in the low aromatic content fuel at high temperature may be one of reasons causing the leakage of the aircraft fuel tank. The experimental results also demonstrated the addition of various additives in the aviation fuel could prevent the over swell of the sealant effectively, and decrease the fuel degradation rate at high temperature environment.
Keywords: polysulfide sealant, polythioether sealant, aromatic content, volume swell
Elemental sulfur corrosion mechanism and evaluation methods for high sour gas fields
Liu Zhide1,2 , Lu Minxu1, Xiao Xuelan3, et al（1. School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083, China; 2.Corrosion and Protection Laboratory of High Sulfur Gas Exploitation Pilot Test Center, CNPC, Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China; 3. Science and Technology Information Department, Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610051, Sichuan, China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp495～498,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The elemental sulfur deposition often occurs in the exploitation of high sour gas field. The presence of elemental sulfur has been long known to corrode carbon steel extremely and may block the gathering lines. It will influence the normal production of gas fields. This paper introduces the source and damage of elemental sulfur (S) in sour gas field. Based on this information the corrosion evaluation method is stated in detail, while the application range of each corrosion evaluation method and their characteristics are analyzed, as well as the mechanism of elemental sulfur corrosion. In the end, the detailed understandings and suggestions according to the current situation in China are proposed.
Keywords: elemental sulfur, corrosion mechanism, corrosion evaluation method
The relationship between structure and performance of oil-soluble viscosity reducer of heavy oil
Qin Bing, Luo Yongtao, Li Bengao, et al(Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, SINOPEC, Beijing 100083,China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp499～503,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The relation between asphaltene content and viscosity of heavy oil in Tahe Oilfield has been studied. The content of asphaltene with a strong polarity in heavy oil is high and the conglomeration of asphaltene causes heavy oil viscous. Aimed at the heavy oil feature, an oil-soluble viscosity reducer has been developed, in which the main ingredient is a kind of polar polymer, compounded with surfactant. The polarity of the polymer molecule has been tailored by adjusting the ratio of polar radicals. The surfactant with the optimal carbon chain length, aromatic ring number and branched methyl number has been selected, which improves the effect of viscosity reducer. The results show that the main ingredient with a proper polarity can be promoted by the assistant surfactant with a proper structure. The viscosity reducer has a remarkable effect on viscosity reduction for the heavy oil of Area 10 and Area 12 in Tahe Oilfield. While the adding mass fraction of agent is 0.5%, the viscosity reduction rate is higher than 30%, and the light oil reducing rate is about 35%.
Keywords: heavy oil, viscosity reduction, surfactant
Studies on magnetic polymer microspheres as flooding profile control and water shutoff agent
Tu Weixia, Xia Haihong(State Key Laboratory of Organic Inorganic Composites, College of Chemical Engineering，Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100028, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp504～507,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: A magnetic polymer microsphere with stable structure and nano/micro sizes is introduced in this paper as deep profile control agent and water shutoff agent. Characterization analysis by scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectrometer and vibrating sample magnetometer prove the composite structure of inorganic magnetic silica oxide core and PAMAA organic shell in microsphere. Experimental results show that the magnetic composite polymer microsphere has good swelling capacity, plugging property, high temperature and salt resistant. The polymer microspheres are super paramagnetic, which not only benefits to magnetic separation from produced fluid but also can be used as magnetic water shutoff in oil wells. The composited polymer microsphere has a potential application as flooding profile control and water shutoff material for enhancing oil recovery.
Keywords: profile control, polymer microspheres, magnetic separation, magnetic water shutoff, swelling capacity, plugging property
Profile control and flooding mechanism and application methods of polymer microsphere
Zhang Yanhui, Dai Caili, Ji Wenjuan, et al(State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266555, Shandong, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp508～511,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The hydration expansion law of the polymer microsphere is observed by the high power optical microscope and laser particle size analyzer in the laboratory. The plugging capacity of polymer microsphere is evaluated and the migration rule in the porous media is studied by the physical simulation experiment, and the ability of decreasing the oil water interface tension of the microsphere system is measured. At the same time, the synergistic effect of the gel microsphere profile control and flooding system is explored to be proved the better effect. The results indicated that the nanometer polymer microsphere can expand to micrometer grade to block the formation whose permeability is lower than 4000×10-3 μm2. The microsphere after hydration expansion could effectively block the porous media, break through when the pressure is high and finally make the deep profile control and flooding come true. The system of the polymer microsphere can also decrease the oil-water interfacial tension. If the gel is injected firstly and following the microsphere, the advantages of the two kinds of agents could be both taken and the water absorbing profile could also be adjusted better to get high recovery ratio.
Keywords: polymer microsphere, migration rule, interfacial tension, synergistic effect, deep profile control
Study on flow rule of high viscosity acid in hydraulic fracture
Li Qin1, Yi Xiangyi1,2，Lu Yuan1，et al(1.College of Energy Resources, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, Sichuan, China;2. State Key Lab of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, Sichuan, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp512～515,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: With the further development of petroleum exploration and exploitation technologies, high-viscosity acidizing fluid has been applied to reservoir stimulation of varieties of complex tight oil and gas accumulations, to decrease the filtration rate and the reaction rate, so as to achieve more penetration depth of the acidizing fluid. The research about fluid state of high-viscosity acidizing fluid in artificial fractures shows great significance in modeling the processes of filtration and acid rock reaction. In this paper, Reynolds number analysis and Z value stability methods of power law fluid are used,to study the flow state of high viscosity acidizing fluid in formation fractures. Results show that main controlling factors which affect flow state of high viscosity acidizing fluid include acid displacement, fracture height, fracture width,consistency coefficient and flow state index, in which the consistency coefficient is the most important factor. When the consistency coefficient is below 0.015 Pa·sn,formation acidizing fluid in conventional construction turns into turbulent state. Therefore the formation acidizing fluid is turbulent in ordinary acidify, while gelled acid and cross-linked acid with high-viscosity are always linear laminar flow under conventional acid fracturing. It is resulted that increasing the delivery volume has little effect on the flow state of acidizing fluid.
Keywords: acid fracturing, highviscosity acid, flow, Reynolds number, Z value stability
Concentration determination of HGY-9B corrosion inhibitor in producing well water
Fu Chaoyang1, Zhang Yunshan2, He Jinbei3, et al(1. School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, China; 2. Sichuan Western Gas Producing Factory, Southwest Oil and Gas Subcompany of SINOPEC Group, Deyang 618000, Sichuan, China; 3. Wuhan Huakete New Technology Co. Ltd, Wuhan 430074，Hubei, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp516～518,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Low concentration of HGY-9B corrosion inhibitor with imidazoline as essential constituent in producing well water was determined by ultraviolet photometer and coloring photometric method. The results show that both ultraviolet photometric method and coloring photometric method using different coloring agents A and B can detect the concentration of HGY-9B inhibitor in 3% NaCl solution. But neither the ultraviolet photometric method nor the coloring photometric method with agent A is suitable for the producing well water. The coloring photometric method using agent B is able to determine the concentration of HGY-9B corrosion inhibitor in the producing well water with low relative error.
Keywords: producing well water, imidazoline, concentration determination, ultraviolet photometric method, coloring photometric method
Determination of trace thiophene in petroleum benzene by sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD)
Wang Yue, Guo Yuanyuan（PetroChina Urumqi Petrochemical Company，Urumqi 830019, Xinjiang, China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp519～521,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: This article describes a method for determination of trace thiophene in petroleum benzene using gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD) and external standard quantification．The operating temperature of burner and gas flow rate are determined，and solutions of anti-interference are found．Compared with other detection methods, this method has the advantages of simple operation, rapid detection, high sensitivity, low detection limit, less interference, good repeatability, more accurate and reliable analysis results.
Keywords: thiophene, sulfur chemiluminescence detector, SCD, external standard method, trace, petroleum benzene
Laboratory experiment research on waste oilbased drilling fluid treatment with chemical demulsification
Chen Yonghong1, Liu Guangquan2, Xu Yu2, et al（1.College of Petroleum Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023,Hubei,China; 2. Institute of Safety and Environment Technology, CNPC, Beijing 102206,China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp522～525,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Chemical demulsification treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid was studied. The screened best demulsifier SA could recover the mineral oil and the oil recovery rate reached 93%. The optimal demulsification process parameters were determined: adding amount of demulsifier SA is 0.8%, PAC coagulant dosage is 600 mg/L, flocculants PAM dosage is 8 mg/L, and the reaction time is 1 h, temperature is （50±0.5）℃. Harmless treatment of isolated waste water and residue were also conducted.
Keywords: waste oil-based drilling fluid, chemical demulsification, recycling oil, harmless disposal
Study on negative value phenomena of suspended solid in waste water
Zhao Junfeng, Chen Xiaoyan, Zhai Linxiu(Technology Inspection Center of Shengli Oilfield Company, Dongying 257000, Shandong, China).CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp526～529,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: According to the operation method of Membrane Preparation in GB 11901-1989 Water Quality Determination by Suspended Solid Weight-Measure Methods, we determine the suspended solid concentration of clean surface water, medical waste water and domestic sewage. Under the circumstance of no distilled water wetting and no pump filtration, the constant weight value of membrane is obtained, and further compared with constant weight value after pump filtration, which is found to be apparently bigger 3.0 mg~3.8 mg than the original value, that means using this method to measure suspended solid will introduce 3.0 mg~3.8 mg of negative error, which will not only affects the accuracy of determination results, but also lead to negative phenomenon for the clean water sample. Pretreatment and laboratory analysis of the micro porous membrane are studied and the reason for negative value is found out. Furthermore, the best method to improve the operation is suggested. After membrane is immersed in distilled water for 24 h and suction filtrated by distilled water once again, repeated drying, cooling and weighing, which can achieve the requirements of two constant weight differences less than 0.2 mg, so as to obtain the real blank membrane filter. This method can resolve the negative phenomenon in determination of suspended solid in clean water sample, and reflects more accurately the actual concentration of the suspended solid in water.
Keywords: waste water, suspended solid, negative value, filtration membrane
Research on water quality improvement measures in Guanghua station of Jianghan Oilfield
Zhang Qingwen, Luo Yue, Liu Qingyun, et al（College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering ,Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023, Hubei, China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp530～532,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The salinity of produced water which is from Guanghua station in Jianghan Oilfield is very high, suspended matter, median grain diameter and iron ions in the effluent went beyond the standard greatly, and water qualification rate is low. Through the process adjustment, adding adjustable storage tank of 1000 m3 and reverse demulsifier AK-2 developed by Yangtze University in anterior segment, then the content of suspended matter ≤4 mg/L,oil content ≤2 mg/L in the effluent，the water quality achieved the standards; meanwhile, the inverting demulsification + Fenton reaction was introduced into flocculating sedimentation stage, which contributes to the removal of iron ions. The operation of adjustment process is stable and reliable in Guanghua station, which greatly improves the water quality.
Keywords: reverse demulsifier, Fenton reaction, flocculating sedimentation, water qualification rate
Research on the nitrogen replacement aerating law during the natural gas pipeline commissioning
Zhao Mongqing1, Li Canrong1, Chen Chuan2, et al（1. Southeast Asia Pipeline Company，CNPC, Beijing 100028, China; 2. Santanghu Oil Production Plant in Tuha Oilfield，Hami 839009, Xinjiang, China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.41, NO.5,pp533～536,2012（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: There are many replacement methods in the process of natural gas pipelines commissioning, and the commonly most used one is nitrogen replacement without isolator. The current research on the aerating law of nitrogen replacement is still in development stage. Based on one-dimensional convection-diffusion equation, this paper discusses the influence of three kinds of Fanning friction factors on the aerating law in the nitrogen replacement, analyzes the application conditions of the Fanning friction factors in one-dimensional model, discusses preliminarily the two-dimensional aerating model in nitrogen replacement, and compares the two kinds of models application conditions.
Keywords: nitrogen replacement, one-dimensional model, Fanning friction factor, two-dimensional model