CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS
Study on high effective organic sulfur removal solvent CT8-24
Hu Tianyou, He Jinlong, Peng Xiujun(Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology of PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213,Sichuan,China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp205～210,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Performances of sterical hindered amine formula solvents for removing H2S and organic sulfur from natural gas have been studied in laboratory. A high effective organic sulfur removal solvent CT8-24 has been developed. The results show that CT8-24 has higher H2S and organic sulfur removal capacity than the traditional solvent sulfinol-M. Under the same conditions, the removal rate of COS and RSH could be increased by 39.3% and 17.4% respectively, and the content of H2S in sweeten gas could be reduced by 94.1% compared with sulfinolM. Furthemore, when CT8-24 was used in higher sour gas purification, the acid gas loading of the solvent could be increased by 39%, and the solution circulation quantity could be reduced by 28.5%. All above show that the formula solvent has significant effects for saving energy and reducing consumption.
Key words: sterical hindered amine, formula solvent, effective organic sulfur removal solvent
Pore structure study of catalysts used in sub-dewpoint claus tail gas treating process
Li Jinjin1,2,3，Huang Liming1,2， He Jinlong1,2， Wen Chongrong1,2(1.Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company，Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China；2.High Sulfur Gas Exploitation Pilot Test Center, China National Petroleum Corporation, Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China；3. College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University,Chengdu 610065, Sichuan, China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp211～215,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The pore structures of sub-dewpoint sulfur recovery catalysts were studied during the Claus tail gas treating process under sub-dewpoint conditions. The surface area, pore volume, distribution of pore size and pore throat ratio of the catalysts were determined using ASAP-2010 nitrogen adsorption and Autopore IV 9500 mercury porosimetry. The results show that three kinds of catalyst micropore distribution curve are approximate Gaussian distribution and pore size distribution is similar, which is about 3.6 nm. The hole shape of the three kinds of catalysts is inkbottle, and the macroporous average pore size of sample C is maximum. The main pore volume difference of these three kinds of catalysts reflects on macroporosity.
Key words: natural gas, sub-dewpoint, sulfur recovery, alumina, pore structure
Research development of hydrodesulfurization technology of FCC gasoline
Gao Daowei, Duan Aijun, Zhao Zhen, Deng Yunchuan(State Key Laboratary of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp216～221,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The research progresses of typical selective hydrodesulfurization process and hydrodesulfurizationoctane recovery process at home and abroad were reviewed. The processes and characteristics of each process were compared. The current commercial hydrodesulfurization catalysts of FCC gasoline were also summarized. Finally, the development tendency of hydrodesulfurization technologies was put forward.
Key words: hydrodesulfurization, octane number recovery, catalyst, research development tendency
Deep desulfurization and processing scheme of mixing C4 in refineries
Liu Yong, Yang Lifeng, Liu Zhengfei(PetroChina Sichuan Petrochemical Company Limited,Pengzhou 611930,Sichuan,China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp222～226,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The distribution of different organic sulfides in LPG and C4 of refineries are introduced in this paper. Typical deep desulphurization technologies for LPG and C4 of refineries including thiol desulfurization by fiber membrane, distillation desulfurization,adsorption desulfurizationand and solvent desulfurization are reviewed. Combining gasoline mixing components production and deep desulfurization of C4, four processing schemes are presented and compared. Considering the facts of investment, whole energy preservation and product market supply, two of the four processing schemes are recommended.
Key words: LPG, C4, deep desulfurization, processing
Understanding of desulfurization technologies for medium and low H2Sbearing natural gas
Li Jin1，Lei Meng2，Tang Xi3(1. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213,Sichuan, China; 2. Amu Darya River Project Department, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company,Chengdu 610051,Sichuan,China; 3. Yinjin Branch of Chongqing Natural Gas Purification Plant General,Chongqing 401236,China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp227～233,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The medium and low H2S bearing natural gas desulfurization technologies at present mainly include dry desulfurization, chelated iron process and biological desulphurization (being developed). Compared with the conventional process flow (i.e. alcoholamine desulfurization, Claus sulfur recovery and tail gas treatment), these technologies have advantages such as high purification degree, relatively lower energy consumption, relatively lower investment, and environmentfriendly, etc., and have been widely applied to desulfurization of natural gas produced from remote scattered gas wells, standard treatment sour gas from amine units and tail gas from Claus units, and other processes.
Key words: potential sulfur content, biological desulphurization, chelated iron process, dry desulfurization, oxidationreduction method
Energy saving optimization analysis of diesel hydrofining unit
Zhang Haichun(Management Department of Refinery Renovation Project, Sinopec Yangzi Petrochemical Company Ltd. ， Nanjing 210048，Jiangsu, China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp234～237,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: This paper introduces basic situation and energy use of 120×104 t/a diesel hydrofining unit in Yangzi Petrochemical Refinery. According to the characteristics of the unit, a series of energy saving measures have been put forward on the new hydrogen compressors, heating furnaces and pumps, which not only solve the problems of these equipments in the production process, but also greatly reduce the unit energy consumption. The energy consumption of the unit decreases from 18.42 kgEO/t at the start to 11.63 kgEO/t in 2011. To further reduce the energy consumption of the unit, hydraulic turbine will be added.
Key words: diesel hydrofining, energy consumption, energy saving, HydroCOM, frequency conversion
Application of low temperature hydrogenation catalyst CT6-11 in RAR tail gas treatment unit of sulfur recovery plant
Ye Quanwang1,Pei Gutang1,Tang Zhonghuai2,Zhang Pingxi1,Liu Xiaoyan1,Wang Yuelin1(1.PetroChina Xinjiang Dushanzi Petrochemical Company Refinery, Dushanzi 833600, Xinjiang, China; 2.Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology(RINGT), PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213,Sichuan, China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp238～241,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Low temperature hydrogenation catalyst CT6-11 has been used in tail gas treatment unit of sulfur recovery plant with 4 000 t/a of Dushanzi Petrochemical Company since August 2011. The result of running for one year shows that CT6-11 has a good low temperature hydrogenation and hydrolysis performance. Hydrogenation conversion of SO2 can reach 100%, and COS hydrolysis is over 99%.
Key words: CT6-11 catalyst, tail gas hydrogenation, low temperature, sulfur recovery, RAR, tail gas treatment
Performance analysis of methanol to olefins process in fluidized bed reactor
Qi Guozhen1, Xie Zaiku2, Chen Qingling1(1.SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Shanghai 201208, China； 2. SINOPEC Group R&D Department, Beijing 100728,China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp242～247,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The flow fluidized bed reactor was applied to methanol to olefins research after some necessary improvements of traditional fixed flow bed reactor. Methanol decomposition probability before contacting the catalysts could be decreased to the lowest level by adjusting the pre-heater temperature and changing the material of descending feed pipe. The results of device repeatability and material balance investigation showed this reactor had good data repeatability and could achieve 97% of mass balance. The experiments about the effect of reaction temperature and water/methanol mass ratio on main products distribution were carried out based on the SAPO-34 molecular sieve catalysts. The results of temperature experiments showed the temperature increase improved the ethylene selectivity greatly. As well as speed up the coke formation, the methanol conversion was almost 100%, and the C=2~C=4 selectivity could be over 90%. For ethylene as main product, the reaction temperature was suggested to choose 500 ℃ with C=2/C=3molar ratio of 1.5. For propylene as main product, the reaction temperature of 450~470 ℃should be chosen with C=2/C=3 molar ratio of 0.9~1.1. The results of water/methanol mass ratio experiment showed that increasing the water content could not only delay the coke formation rate, but also increase the ethylene selectivity remarkably, which could put the C=2/C=3 molar ratio up to more than 2.0. Too much water would increase the energy consume and the load of reactor and products separator unavoidably no matter for ethylene or propylene as main products. Therefore, water/methanol mass ratio of 0.25~0.5 was advocated.
Key words: methanol to olefins, fluidized bed reactor, SAPO-34, temperature, water/methanol
Experimental research on volatility of M15 methanol-gasoline
Huang Yong, Zhang Juanli，Zhang Shuqin，Zhang Xinzhuang（Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum(group) Co., Ltd, Xi'an 710075, Shaanxi,China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp248～251,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Based on experimental data of the distillation range and saturated vapor pressure of M15 methanol-gasoline, the vapor pressure, boiling point and octane number of gasoline and methanol were investigated; the reasons why M15 methanol-gasoline has strong volatility were analyzed, and the effects of different temperature and blend ratios on saturated vapor pressure of M15 methanol-gasoline were discussed. The methods as changing the proportion of base oil (FCC gasoline: reformed naphtha=(5~5.5)∶1, adding additives, distilling of catalytic modification and so on were proposed. The distillation temperature was reduced by 3~6℃; the distillate before 70℃ was decreased by 5%~12% and saturated vapor pressure was reduced by 5~10 kPa, all of which can improve the volatility and air lock of M15 methanol-gasoline.
Key words: M15 methanol-gasoline, saturated vapor pressure, volatility
Experimental research of industrial burner fueled by DME-NG mixtures
Xing Huijuan, Qin Chaokui，Zhou Yu(Mechanical and Energy Engineering College, Tongji University， Shanghai 201804, China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp252～256,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: A small industrial burner was fueled by variable percentage of dimethyl ether (DME) blended with natural gas, to test resulting response of heat input rate and emissions. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate possibility of supply DME as a peakshaving tool for natural gas. The burner used in test was a forceddraught RIELLO 40 GS5 and blending percentage included 0，10%，20%，30%，40%, and 100%. The results show that such a burner is flexible enough to give satisfactory performance under above percentages.
Key words: dimethyl ether, natural gas, industrial burner, flexibility
Development of LNG vehicles technology and its prospect of popularization and application
Wen Yonggang1,2, Chen Yunwen1, Fan Shuanshi2, An Chengming1, Xu Wendong2（1. Shenzhen Gas Corporation Ltd., Shenzhen 518040，China ; 2. The Key Lab of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation,Ministry of Education,South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640，Guangdong,China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp257～260,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: LNG vehicles have bright prospects in replacing fuel vehicles with many advantages such as safety, economy, and highefficiency et al. Developing and popularizing application of LNG vehicles in China is an optimal path for improving energy structure, solving energy crisis, and reducing vehicle emissions pollution. This paper summarizes technology development status of LNG vehicle industry in domestic and overseas, prospects development, popularization and application of LNG vehicle in China. On the basis of the above review, some development proposals are put forward.
Key words: LNG vehicle, energy density, storage pressure, methane content, cold energy cycle, safety and environmental protection
Natural gas hydrate storage and transportation technology and its development status
Zhang Qi(CNOOC Research Institute,Beijing 100027,China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp261～264,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: At present, natural gas hydrate(NGH) considered to be a potential unconventional gas resource. It is meaningful to study the natural gas hydrate exploitation and various new technologies such as the storage of natural gas in the form of hydrates. This paper summarizes the development status of hydrate technologies all over the world, such as formation process, storage and transportation methods of NGH. Then the compare of natural gas transportation ways between in the form of NGH and LNG (liquefied natural gas) was made. The results indicated that the NGH is one of the high efficient,economical and safe storage and transportation methods. Finally, the utilization of NGH in future is expected.
Key words: hydrate, natural gas, formation, storage and transportation, development status
Laboratory evaluation and field application of self-diversion acid
Wang Daocheng1,Zhang Yan1,Deng Sufen2,Xiang Chao1,Wang Chuan1,Long Chuanmin1,Zhang Yadong1,Liu Shuang1(1. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China;2. Southern Sichuan Gas District,PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Luzhou 646001,Sichuan,China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp265～269,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: With the oil and gas exploration and development, the newly discovered carbonate reservoir is more and more complex, such as the strong heterogeneity, long interval, and complicated construction technological process. With the advantages of viscosity variation and acid distribution uniformly, the selfdiversion acid was applied in such reservoir. Although researchers carried out many experimental evaluations, such as diverting performance, viscosity variation process and temperature endurance etc, the study results have not been combined with the acidfracturing operation on site. Through the experiment of diverting range, the acid is divided into two categories which are a wide system and a narrow system, and the diverting performance was also tested. The result of pressure differential demonstrated two types of characteristics: one peak and three peaks. The performance evaluation experiments using degradable fiber diverting agent were carried out for plugging the fracture reservoir, whose plugging pressure reached 3.2 MPa. According to the research result, the adaptability of selfdiversion acid and fiber diverting agent to the reservoir and operation requirements were obtained. Based on the initial obtained adaptability, we selected the suitable selfdiversion acid for Y5 well. During the acidfracturing on site, the acid demonstrated rapid and repeated diverting trend. After the acidfracturing, the well output was 3.95 times and the pressure is 2.7 times than before respectively.
Key words: fiber, evaluation, laboratory, carbonate reservoir, heterogeneity, selfdiversion acid, transformation effect
Research and application of slick water for shale volume fracturing
Chen Pengfei1,Liu Youquan1, Deng Sufen2,Wu Wengang1,Lei Yingquan3, Zhang Yadong1,Huang Chenzhi1 (1. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China; 2. Southern Sichuan Gas District,PetroChina Southwest Oil& Gasfield Company, Luzhou 646001,Sichuan,China; 3. CNPC Chuanqing Dring Engineering Company Limited,Chengdu 610051, Sichuan, China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp270～273,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The shale reservoir requires volume fracturing with large displacement and large amount of fluid in order to obtain industrial gas flow. According to the volume fracturing requirement, the slick water should have low viscosity, low friction, high flowback, excellent antiswelling and good compatibility properties with reservoir. Combing the Sichuan reservoir characteristics with experimental result, we developed a polyacrylamide friction reducer, an efficient anti-swelling agent and microemulsion surfactant, and developed a liquid formulation fitting to Sichuan shale reservoir. The field tests of 8 wells in Sichuan W and C blocks showed that the excellent performance of friction reduction, whose friction reduction rate is 65.5% to 68.3%; the W block average flowback rate is 46.19%, the C block average flowback rate is 27.93%, and the cumulative test production reach 6.24×104～11.35×104 m3/d..
Key words: shale, hydraulic fracturing, slick water, friction reducer, volume fracturing
Development of the super-low concentration hydroxypropyl guar gelled fracturing fluid and its application in Sulige gas field
Li Xiaoling1，2， Ding Li1，2， Shi Huaqiang1，2， Yin Xiaohong1，2， Lv Xiaoming1，2（1. Oil ＆ Gas Technology Research Institute， Changqing Oilfield Company，Xi'an 710021， Shaanxi，China；2. Shaanxi Low Permeability Oil and Gas Field Exploration and Development of the National Engineering Laboratory，Xi'an710021， Shaanxi，China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp274～278,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: On the basis of the analysis of Upper Paleozoic Reservoir geological conditions in Sugeli gas field， according to the theory of critical concentration of the hydroxypropyl guar gum(HPG) is the lowest concentration of cross-linking， and organic boron crosslinking mechanism， the new style high efficient cross-linking agent has been studied through the optimizing of synthesis conditions and crosslinking complexing agent. The application of this cross-linking system could make the hydroxypropyl guar concentration decline by 40%， and the fracturing fluid system could still keep the good temperature-resistance property and rheological behavior. The volume of the residual gum decrease greatly alleviated the damage to reservoir. By the end of the 2011， the fracturing fluid had been successfully used in 42 vertical wells and 3 horizontal wells of the Sulige gas field， which achieved better modification effects.
Key words: super-low concentration fracturing fluid， hydroxypropyl guar gum， high efficiency cross-linking complex agent， low damage
Research of iron precipitation in sandstone acidizing
Zhu Hongwang1，2， Li Nianyin2， Chen Ping2， Zhao Liqiang2， Feng Anqiong3(1. Shanshan Oil Production Plant of PetroChina Tuha Oilfield Company,Turpan 838200,Xinjiang,China；2. State Key Laboratory of Reservoir and Geological Exploration Engineering， Chengdu 610500,Sichuan,China,Southwest Petroleum University；3. Oil and Gas Technology Development Department of PetroChina Changqing Oilfield Company,xi＇an 710021,Shaanxi,Chian) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp279～282,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Acidizing can dredge formation seepage channels effectively， and improve the seepage ability of formation fluid， which achieves the production stimulation of oil， gas and waterinjection wells. But the iron ions precipitates can be easily formed in formation during acidizing， which will block pore throats and impact acidizing effect. Aiming at sandstone formation， precipitation mechanisms of iron ions in mud acid， fluoboric acid and multi-hydrogen acid are researched in this paper. The research results show that in sandstone formation acidizing， iron ions exist in precipitates as various of composites， which is different from the form of Fe(OH)3 precipitate when carbonate reservoir acidized by hydrochloric acid. Formation conditions of iron precipitates are different in different acid systems. In mud acid， iron precipitates are formed in low pH value and completely precipitate while pH=1.2. In fluoboric acid， iron precipitates are formed in higher pH value than in mud acid. Multi-hydrogen acid has good chelation to metal ions. So in multi-hydrogen acid， iron precipitates can be formed only in a smaller pH value range as well as in higher pH value. The risk of iron precipitates formation is low when adopting multi-hydrogen acid in sandstone formation acidizing.
Key words: acidizing， sandstone， iron precipitation， multi-hydrogen acid
Research and application of the multiple injection acid fracturing technology in Daniudi gas field
Xu Bingwei，He Qing，Wang Dean，Li Guofeng，Zhang Yongchun(Research Institute of Engineering and Technique， Huabei Sub-Company，Sinopec， Zhengzhou 450006，Henan，China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp283～286,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Abstract: Based on analysis of the mechanics of acid rock reaction and characterization of Palaeozoic carbonatite gas reservoir of Daniudi gas field， an optimal research of the reform strength and series of multiple injection acid fracturing were carried out by numerical simulation. The acid fracturing modification effect under different injection stages by the experimental data was analyzed， and the result showed that the multiple acid fracturing technology was feasible， and the absolute open-flow could reach 38 200 m3/d in the Daniudi gas field.
Key words: multiple injection， acid fracturing， dolomite rock， injection series
Test and analysis of sand-control screen corrosion in thermal production wells using multiple thermal fluids
Dong Shexia，Zhang Hailong， Ji Gongming，Li Xiaobo（Production Optimization Research Institute of China Oilfield Services Limited，Tianjin 300450，China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp287～289,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The recovery technology of multiple thermal fluids is a progressive multiple-effect one in thermal production wells， but the corrosion to the downhole system by this technology is more serious than heavy oil thermal recovery technologies. In this paper， five materials of TP100， 3Cr， N80， 316L metal nets， and 434 metal cotton were chosen， which constitute membrane & composite screens， to simulate the on site injection & production conditions. The corrosion tests were carried out and the corrosion rates were predicted. Based on the results， the proposals for screen selecting and screen anticorrosion in the production of multiple thermal fluids wells were proposed.
Key words: corrosion， temperature， O2， CO2， screen
Application of PF-PRD drilling fluid in Wenchang 13-1 oilfield
Ren Bin1，Du Wei2， Peng Qiaosong1，Chen Lanxia1（1. Sinopec Northwest Oilfield Branch Ministry of Oil and Gas Distribution,Luntai 841600,Xinjiang,China；2. CNOOC (China) Co. Ltd, Zhanjiang Branch Drilling Department, Zhanjiang 524000,Guangdong,China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp290～293,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract： PF-PRD nonsolidphase drilling fluid is a new type of weak gel drilling fluid system, whose formation of weak gel has low shear rate and high viscosity. Even at high temperatures, it also shows characteristics of excellent suspension, lubrication and inhibition ability; and low dehydration and thin filter mass make it easy to clean and can alleviate damage. Other excellent features include resistance to temperature, salinity, shear force and strong ability to adapt to the environment. In this paper, we incorporated laboratory study and field application of PFPRD nonsolidphase drilling fluid system in three horizontal wells WC13-1-A6, WC13-1-A8 and WC13-1-A3 in the Wenchang 13-1 oilfield of southwestern China. The results show that PF-PRD solid free drilling fluid system adapt to Wenchang 13-1 oilfield geological structure, and has good prospect of application and extension.
Key words: non-solid-phase, weak gel, low shear rate viscosity, stabilizing borehole, protecting reservoir.
Compatibility of western Sichuan Xujiahe gas reservoir stratum water and Penglai gas reservoir stratum water with the reservoir
Zhao Hua，Yang Li(Sinopec Engineering Institute of Technology Southwest Oil Branch, Deyang 618000, Sichuan,China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp294～296,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract：In recent years, for increase of the production strength of western Sichuan Xujiahe gas reservoir, stratum water output rises sharply. The high salinity stratum water treatment is difficult since lack of treatment means, and the efflux is environmental hazards. At present, the most effective treatment of gas field water is different layer reinjection. For different gas reservoir gas water reinjection, to ensure the success of recycling and reuse system in normal operation, water quality compatibility experiment must be carried out. According to the water quality characteristics of western Sichuan Xujiahe gas reservoir and Penglai gas reservoir, compatibility experiment of water quality with reservoir was done to understand the effect factors of reinjection, and some announcements and countermeasures are put forward.
Key words： stratum water, reinjection, compatibility, experiment
Direct measurement and assignment technology for natural gas calorific value
Li Ke1，2, Pan Chunfeng1，2, Zhang Yu3, Zeng Wenping1，2, Han Hui1，2(1.Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China；2. Key laboratory of natural gas quality and energy measurement, CNPC，Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China；3. CNPC South East Asia Pipeline Company Limited, Beijing 100028,China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp297～301,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: With the increasing of pipeline natural gas and LNG import volume, as well as the diversification situation of gas source and gas quality in China, the need of energy measurement in natural gas trade is getting more and more pressing. Combustion is the basic measurement method of natural gas energy measurement by the requirement of its basic rule. The direct measurement for natural gas calorific value is the basis of energy traceability. This paper discusses the latest progress, measurement device and its basic principle of Rossini calorific value meter, and the gap between domestic technology present situation and the abroad level is compared. The theory of calorific value assignment is introduced. Gas flow time calculation equation for long distance pipeline with altitude height changes is derived from fluid mechanics theory.
Key words: natural gas, energy measurement, calorific value direct measurement, assignment
Determination of nickel, sodium and vanadium in the pipeline transportation crude oil by microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry
Suo Jinling, Zhang Jinlong ,Wu Shan，Xu Yingjie，Ayiding（Inspection and Quarantine Technique Center of Alashankou EntryExit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau , Alashankou Port 833418, Xinjiang,China）.CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp302～305,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: A method was established for detecting sodium, nickel and vanadium in pipeline transportation crude oil by microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. Nitric acid was added in uniform sample, then the solution was prepared by microwave digestion. Sodium, nickel and vanadium contents in solution were determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. The recovery is between 93%～100% by this method, relative standard deviation is between 3.08%～10.30%. And the method meets the requirements of sodium, nickel and vanadium rapid detection of imported pipeline transportation crude oil in port.
Key words: microwave digestion, ICP-OES, the pipeline transportation crude oil, sodium, nickel, vanadium
Study on the centrifugal separation of waste oil-based drilling fluid under ultrasonic and chemical demulsification
Xia Jiaxiang1, Liu Yucheng2, Xu Junzhong2, Chen Mingyan2(1.Sichuan Drilling Company of Southwest Petroleum Engineering Co.ltd, Sinopec.Deyang 618000,Sichuan,China; 2. College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,Southwest Petroleum University,Chengdu 610500,Sichuan,China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp306～310,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract：The centrifugal separation of waste oil-based drilling fluid under the synergistic effect of ultrasonic irradiation and chemical demulsification was investigated, and the effects of demulsifier dosage, heating temperature, ultrasonic time and centrifuge speed on the deoiling ratio were analyzed. The BASF-L62 was proved to be the best demulsifier by the pre-experiment. The single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment were applied for studying the influencing factors on ultrasonic irradiation and chemical demulsification centrifugally separating the waste oilbased drilling fluid. The experimental results showed that the deoiling rate was 81.78% under the conditions of heating time of 20 min, demulsifier dosage of 200 mg/L, heating temperature of 70 ℃, ultrasonic irradiation time of 9 min, centrifuge speed of 8 000 r/min and centrifugal time of 10 min.
Key words：waste oil-based drilling fluid, ultrasonic and chemical demulsification, centrifugal separation, deoiling.
Study on optimized layout of fire and gas detectors in FPSO
Shang Shengmei, Wang Haiqing, Liu Junfang(Safety Science and Engineering Department, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580,Shandong,China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp311～315,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract：A new method of fire and gas (F&G) detectors layout in Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessel was introduced, which avoided the drawbacks of F&G detectors layout of the traditional experience and 'prescription' standards. Firstly, with the FPSO design guide, the dangerous zones of FPSO were divided and identified by the HAZID method. Then the numbers of F&G detectors in FPSO dangerous zones were calculated and two optimized layout methods were proposed. Finally the two proposed methods were compared with traditional experience method. The comparative analysis results showed that: the two optimized layout methods were superior to the traditional experience method, not only improving the F&G detectors coverage rate of dangerous zones, but also strengthening the F&G detection accuracy and reducing the false alarms frequency.
Key words：FPSO, fire detection, gas detection, HAZID, optimal layout
Safety control and emergency management analysis of gathering and transportation system in Salman Jiepei gas field
Zuo Yingxiang1,Ran Fenghua1,Wang Mingquan1,Zhu Huande1，Chang Lingsong2（1.PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company Amu Darya River Project Department, Chengdu 610051,Sicuan,China;2.Sichuan Petroleum Construction Co.,Ltd，Chengdu 610051, Sichuan,China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp316～319,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract：Samanjiepei gas field is the largest overseas gas project of Petro China -one of the gas projects on the right shore of Amu Darya River in Turkmenistan, A district of which includes four gas fields, including Samanjiepei, Maijierang, Yaxierjiepei and Genjibieke. Samanjiepei is the main gas field launched in the first phase, whose hydrogen sulfide content of natural gas is 1.97%~4.40% (volume percentage, the same below), carbon dioxide content is 3.69%~4.57%, and also contain condensate oil. The gas field has established comparatively perfect security control and emergency management system; gas containing sulfur leak monitoring system; SCADA automatic control as well as interlock shutting off system of hole entrygathering and transferringpurificationoutward transportation; and the gas field also has been equipped with emergency rescue facilities, relying on local emergency rescue professional team, which can deal with the needs of sulfur gas field safe production and emergency rescue, but still needs to be perfected and strengthened.
Key words：Samanjiepei gas field, security control, emergency plan, emergency management, emergency rescue.
Operation analysis of the venting system of gas gathering station in jingbian gas field
Wen Lixian,Xu Yong,Wang Xiao,Li Baipeng, Han Na, Lu Xiaoyun(The First Natural Gas Plant of PetroChina Changqing Oilfield Company,Jingbian 718500,Shaanxi,China) .CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.42, NO.2,pp320～324,2013（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: This paper mainly analyzed the venting system of gas gathering station in Jingbian gas field from two aspects including the gas liquid separation and the combustion of torch. Because of the pollution of the environment surrounding the torch venting, we compared the structure of gas liquid separation tank and torch, then we proposed the venting mode of double drum flash tank and gas liquid separation cyclone torch. We also have done lots of field tests focusing on the new venting system, which showed that it had favorable effect on the evacuation of producing water gas well. Therefore, the new venting system has good environmental and social benefit, and is worthy of popularization and application.
Key words: gas liquid separation venting tank, double drum flash tank, gas liquid separation cyclone torch, cyclone separator