CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS
Application of MEG regeneration and reclamation technology on offshore platform
Liu Feilong1, Ni Hao1, Zeng Shubing1, Jiang Zhenhui2（1. Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd, Tianjin 300451, China; 2. CNOOC Tianjin LNG Co., Ltd, Tianjin 300452, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp113～116,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The MEG regeneration and reclamation technology is successfully applied to offshore platform. The process includes MEG pre-treatment, regeneration and desalination. The pre-treatment section is designed to remove hydrocarbon from the rich MEG and divalent metal salts, which can generate precipitation by reacting with sodium hydroxide. Adopting distillation column, the MEG regeneration section operates at a pressure slightly above the atmospheric pressure, and the mass concentration of lean MEG solubility should be more than 80%. The key technology of the process is desalination, which uses a vacuum flash separator to crystallize and remove the high soluble one valence salts, and primarily sodium salts from the lean MEG. The MEG regeneration and reclamation package has good performance and less MEG loss. Therefore, it has a variety of applications in prospect.
Key words: MEG, pre-treatment, regeneration, reclamation, thermal degradation, desalination
Numerical analysis of influence of recycling chamber inlet position on the flow of supersonic separator
Wang Zhihong1, Zhu Chao1, Wang Xiaoqiang2，Dan Xiaodong1(1. Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, Sichuan, China; 2. Qijiang Branch of Chongqing Natural Gas Purification Plant General, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chongqing 401433, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp117～121,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: As a new efficient separation equipment, supersonic separator has incomparable efficiency and economy with respect to traditional separation methods and equipments. In this paper, the numerical simulation between traditional supersonic separator and recycling separator with same structure and size were compared. Under the same outlet pressure, the flow distributions in the recycling separator was better than the former, the shock wave was further away from the throat which could expand the area of supersonic flow and improve the efficiency of gasliquid separation. While the stability of flow influenced by the different inlet position of recycling chamber was analyzed, and the result showed that flow stability was better and could improve the separation performance when the inlet position was at the outlet of Laval nozzle.
Key words: supersonic separator, recycling, numerical simulation, shock wave, natural gas
Research on commissioning condition of natural gas processing plant
Liu Qiang1, Gao Xiaogen1, Lei Ying2, Zhang Chunyang1, Wen Dongyun1, Liu Wei3(1.Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China; 2. Moxi Purification Plant of Central Sichuan Oil and Gas District, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Suining 629000, Sichuan, China; 3. Northwest Sichuan Gas District Natural Gas Purification Plant, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Jiangyou 621709, Sichuan, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp122～126,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The commissioning process of natural gas processing plant has the characteristics of high risk, high accident rate, and high technical content. Main stages of the natural gas processing plant commissioning process were concluded and summarized, and the main commissioning conditions of every stage were analyzed. Combining with the characteristics of commission condition during each stage, the applicability and characteristics of the establishment of commissioning network plan, safety work method and checking list method were described. At last, suggestions were given on evaluating commissioning condition of natural gas processing plant, which provided powerful technical support on successful commissioning of natural gas processing plant.
Key words: natural gas processing plant, commissioning condition, checking list method, safety work method
Study on catalytic oxidation desulfurization of diesel by quaternary ammonium gemini surfactant
Zhao Tianhong1,2, Zhang Yan2，Xia Jijia2，Huang Xiaochuan3（1. State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500,Sichuan,China; 2. School of Chemistry and Chemical
Engineering of Southwest Petroleum University,Chengdu 610500,Sichuan,China; 3. CCDC Drilling and Production Engineering Technology Research Institute, Guanghan 618300, Sichuan, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp127～130,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Catalytic oxidation desulfurization of diesel in the H2O2/acetate oxidative diesel desulfurization system by quaternary ammonium surfactants and quaternary ammonium Gemini surfactants as phase transfer catalyst (PTC) was studied. The desulfurization effect of quaternary ammonium surfactants and quaternary ammonium Gemini surfactants with different carbon chain was compared. Furthermore, the effects of ［C12H25-N+-(CH2)2-N+-C12H25］·2Br- dosage, oxidant dosage, reaction temperature and reaction time on the desulfurization performance were investigated. The result showed that the desulfurization rate of diesel fuel could be up to 84.76% and the diesel yield reached 94.52% while the mass ratio of PTC and diesel fuel was 0.002 5 and volume ratio of oxidation system and diesel fuel was 0.2 after 1.5 h in reaction at 70 ℃, taking ［C12H25-N+-(CH2)2-N+-C12H25］·2Br- as the phase transfer catalyst.
Key words: phase transfer catalyst, diesel, quaternary ammonium salt, surfactant, Gemini, oxidative desulfurization
Characterization and catalytic application of supermicroporous material TiPW/SA
Zhang Yanwei1, Jia Taixuan1, Cui Shuchen2, Wang Yanfei1, Song Haixiang1
（1.Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, Anyang Institute of
Technology，Anyang 455000, Henan, China; 2. Sinopec Zhongyuan Petroleum and
Chemical Co., Ltd，Puyang 457001，Henan, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp131～134,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: TiPW/SA was produced using the sol-gel method and characterized by FT-IR and N2 adsorptiondesorption. Taking the gasoline with a sulfur compounds content of 300 mg/kg as experimental material, the catalytic oxidation and adsorption desulfurization performance of TiPW/SA was analyzed. The results showed that all the loaded catalysts keep the Keggin structures, and TiPW/SA has a supermicroporous structure, and the specific surface area is 325 m2/g. The analysis also suggested that the desulfurization rate of TiPW/SA under the optimal reaction condition could reach 92.08%.
Key words: supermicroporous, phosphotungstic acid, orthogonal test, catalytic oxidationadsorption
Technical renovation of CBA sulfur recovery reactor
Tang Xi， Qu Yang， Zhang Yunguang, He Peidong， Xu Fei（Chongqing Natural Gas Purification Plant General, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chongqing 401259，China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp135～139,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: CBA reactor is the crucial equipment of four-stage transformation cold bed adsorption technology of the BV Company. In Yinjin Branch of Chongqing Natural Gas Purification Plant General, there were many times of temporary shutdown incidents caused by the collapse of refractory liner and the leakage of catalyst at the manholes of the Claus reactors, which result in choking up of liquid sulfur pipeline. Reasons based on technology and equipment were analyzed. As a result, in the chemical technology aspects, it was pointed out that adding fuel gas mixing with the acid gas could increase the temperature of reactors under low load operation. In the aspect of equipment, improving the insulation construction, ontology structure and inside structure near the manholes were proposed. The technical renovation schemes have already made a significant difference.
Key words: CBA reactor, refractory liner, collapse, sulfur recovery, technical renovation
Process optimization and simulation of ice-making utilizing cold energy from LNG satellite station
Kuang Daiping1, Dong Shier1, Yang Chongwei2, Huang Yongshuo3, Yang Xiaobo1（1.School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, Sichuan, China; 2.Shanghai Kunlun ENN Clean Energy Co., Ltd, Shanghai 200235, China; 3.Southeast Asia Pipeline Co., Ltd, Beijing 100028, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp140～145,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Owing to the vaporizing quantity of LNG changing a lot in different seasons and times, some problems occur in the existing ice-making process by utilizing cold energy from LNG satellite station, including the mismatch between LNG vaporizing quantity and ice requirement, with the unstable output of ice-making. To solve these problems, a novel associated ice-making process was proposed. This process combines the icemaking method of utilizing cold energy from LNG with phase transition refrigerant (R410A) and the vapor compression refrigeration cycle, adopting natural gas engine to provide the power for compressor. In addition to solve the above problem, the new process also can alleviate the seasonal imbalance of electricity and gas. Simulations were carried out with the process software HYSYS, and the key operational parameters of the new process have been determined. The simulation results show that the output of ice-making is about 127 t for the small LNG satellite station that vaporizing quantity is 20×103-100×103 m3/d. Compared with the ordinary ice-making method, the new process can save energy up to 7 332 kW per day. If the wholesale price of ice is 8 yuan per 100 kg, the annual gross income will amount to 3 703 600 yuan. The new process has considerable economic benefit.
Key words: LNG satellite station, cold energy utilization, ice-making process, HYSYS simulation, phase transition refrigerant
Influence of chemical additives on hydrate formation and gas storage
Zhang Qingdong, Li Yuxing, Wang Wuchang(College of Pipeline and Civil Engineering，China University of Petroleum，Qingdao 266580，Shandong, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp146～151,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In order to study effects of promoters on hydrate formation, adopting a self-designed hydrate reaction system, influences of the tetrahydrofuran (THF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on carbon dioxide hydrate formation were studied through experiments with constant temperature and volume. Hydrate formation rate, gas storage capacity and the apparent hydration number were calculated on the basis of real-time measurements of system temperature and pressure in the process of hydrate formation. The result showed that the suitable concentration of SDS can promote the dissolution of gas in the liquid phase, and improve the growth rate and gas storage density of hydrate. THF only had little effect on hydrate generation process. Compound additives SDS and THF working together could promote the hydrate formation importantly.
Key words: hydrate, formation, additives, carbon dioxide, gas storage capacity
Design of pressure vessel for natural gas with high H2S, CO2 and Cl - contents
Liu Wenguang1， Zhang Yi1，Zhang Bo2(1. China Petroleum Engineering Co., Ltd. Southwest Company, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China；2. CCDC Sichuan Petroleum Construction Co., Ltd， Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp152～156,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The basic designing practices of pressure vessels for natural gas field with high H2S, CO2 and Cl- contents were introduced. Meanwhile, handling of problems appeared during manufacture and inspection process, as well as basic situations of the pressure vessels after put into production were explained. These measures ensured the safety of the pressure vessels and the successful start-up of the devices to produce qualified natural gas, condensate oil and corresponding affiliated products. All of above made a breakthrough in the large gas field development both at home and abroad, and the unit was successfully commissioned abroad. The practices and processing suggestions in the approaches also provided new safe and convenient ways to implement in the development of similar gas field abroad, and provided references in design and construction for similar units.
Key words: natural gas field with high H2S, CO2 and Cl- contents，pressure vessel design，problem handling，safe and reliable
Design of LNG/L-CNG filling station
Zhang Wei(Luoyang Petrochemical Engineering Design Co.,Ltd, Yangpu Economic Development Zone, Haikou 578101，Hainan, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp1157～160,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The major equipments about LNG/L-CNG filling stations were introduced, including LNG storage tanks, LNG submersible pump, unloading supercharger, EAG heater, LNG high-pressure piston pump, high-pressure gasifier, CNG gas cylinders, dispensers, sequence control panel and so on. The calculation method of above equipments selection in the process of designing was also introduced. Problems like piping stress compensation，selection of pipe and fittings materials, selection of heat insulation structure and materials should be noticed in the design.
Key words: LNG, L-CNG, filling station, selection of equipment, pipeline design
Influence of temperature on corrosion behavior of VM110SS casing steel in sour environment
Chen Wen1, Gu Tan1, Yu Huali1, Tian Gang2, Hu Junying2, Zeng Dezhi2
(1. Natural Gas Research Institute of Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, PetroChina,
Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China; 2. National Energy R&D Center of High Sulfur Gas Exploitation，Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China; 3. High Sulfur Gas Exploitation Pilot Test Center，CNPC，Chengdu 610213，Sichuan，China; 4. State Key Laboratory of Oil & Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, Sichuan, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp161～164,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The influence of temperature on corrosion behavior of VM110SS casing steel in sour environment was studied in high temperature and high pressure autoclave by simulating the downhole environment of a gas field in Sichuan. The partial pressure of CO2, partial pressure of H2S and total pressure are 0.54 MPa, 0.41 MPa and 18 MPa respectively. The test temperature is from 30 ℃ to 150 ℃. The relation between temperature and corrosion rate of the VM110SS steel can be obtained. The compositions and appearance of corrosion products were analyzed by SEM and EDS. The results showed that the corrosion rate of VM110SS increased firstly then decreased with the increase of test temperature. The maximum value appeared at 90 ℃. The corrosion rate in gas phase was 0.838 mm/a, and the corrosion rate in liquid phase was 1.130 mm/a, which showed a extremely severe corrosion. Uniform corrosion characteristic was presented to specimens at all test temperatures and corrosion product was composed mainly of iron sulfides. The paper provides theoretical basis for casing corrosion mechanism at different temperature and guidance for casing steel selection.
Key words: CO2, H2S, VM110SS, temperature, corrosion rate, corrosion product film
Corrosion resistance of titanium alloy in high sour environment
Yan Jing, Wu Guiyang, Wu Hua, Liu Zhide, Yuan Xi, Gu Tan(1. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company,Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China; 2. National Energy R&D Center of High Sulfur Gas Exploitation，Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China; 3. High Sulfur Gas Exploitation Pilot Test Center， CNPC， Chengdu 610213， Sichuan， China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp165～167,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The optical microscope was used to research microstructure of Titanium alloy and its welds, then corrosion weight loss method, NACE TM0177 A method (Standard Tensile Test) and standard Bent-Beam test method were used to research corrosion resistance performance of electrochemistry and environmental cracking in high sour environment. The results showed that the microstructure of TA2 was single α phase, welds were big α+α phase or block α+flaky α+α phase, and microstructure of heat affected zone was tinier than welds. Titanium alloy had good corrosion resistance in high sour environment.
Key words: titanium alloy, high sour environment, corrosion resistance performance
Effect of Fe2+ on the apparent viscosity of polymer solution and controlling methods
Chen Bin1，Wu Xiaoyan1,Wang Shanshan2, Chen Shijia1, Zuo Qingquan1（1.CNOOC Energy Technology & Oilfield Engineering Research Institute, Tianjin 300452,China；2.CNOOC Research Institute,Beijing 100027,China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp168～173,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The influences of Fe2+ on the apparent viscosity of polymer solution have been studied in this paper, and the results showed that a small amount of Fe2+ would make the polymer degraded severely. HPAM polymer molecular weight and viscosity declined dramatically with the increasing of CFe2+ among the 0～0.5 mg/L, and declined slowly when the CFe2+ above a concentration of 0.5mg/L. The AFM photos also showed that polymer network structure was destroyed largely. In order to ensure the polymer viscosity, the contents of Fe2+ in preparation water should not exceed to the concentration of 0.5 mg/L. There are several controlling measures used to remove Fe2+ in preparation water, such as oxygen exposure, chemical complex method and manganese sand filtration. Chemical complex method is the most simple and effective one among them. The high effective iron removal reagent BHCT-1 with a concentration of 300 mg/L showed a good effect to remove Fe2+. For example, it was applied in offshore polymer flooding oilfield, and the viscosity of polymer solution would be increased by more than 20%.
Key words: polyacrylamide, degradation, apparent viscosity, iron removal
Performance evaluation and mechanism analysis of ASP system with high concentration
Niu Liwei1, Lu Xiangguo1, Li Jianbing2, Yang Min3, Hu Yong4, Hu Shuqiong1, Yuan Shengwang1(1.Key Laboratory for Enhanced Oil Recovery of the Ministry of Education, Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing 163318, Heilongjiang, China; 2.Eighth Plant of Daqing Oilfield Ltd, PetroChina, Daqing 163514, Heilongjiang, China; 3.Research Institute of Exploration and Development, PetroChina Tarim Oilfield Company, Korla 841000,Xinjiang, China; 4.Langfang Branch of PetroChina Exploration & Development Research Institute, Langfang 065007, Hebei, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp174～178,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Aiming at actual demand of oilfields, the viscosity, interfacial tension, static adsorption property, rheological behavior and flow characteristics of alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP) system have been evaluated through instrument test and theoretical method. The results showed that with the increase of alkali concentration, viscosity and interfacial tension of ASP system decreased. With the increase of surfactant concentration, viscosity and interfacial tension of ASP system decreased. With the increase of surfactant concentration, viscosity of ASP system first decreased then increased, and interfacial tension decreased. In the ASP system, static absorption of surfactant was the largest, then alkali followed and polymer came last. With the increase of alkali concentration, viscoelasticity of ASP system decreased. Surfactant had little impact on the viscoelasticity of Asp system. As is showed in flow characteristics experiments, resistance coefficient and residual resistance coefficient of ASP system decreased after descaling of solvent water. With the decrease of alkali concentration, polymer concentration increased and core permeability decreased, resistance coefficient and residual resistance coefficient of ASP system increased. With the increase of surfactant concentration, resistance coefficient and residual resistance coefficient of ASP system first decreased then increased.
Key words: ASP system, viscosity, interfacial tension, static adsorption, rheological behavior, resistance coefficient, mechanism analysis
Corrosion and scaling control of reinjection water well at Shuanghe west district in Yongning oil production plant
Li Guoming1, Yun Yuping2,Wang Yaxiong2,An Sitong3,Tang Zuyou3（1. Research Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum(Group)Co.,Ltd，Xi′an 710075, Shaanxi, China；2. Yanchang Oil Field Stock Company Research Center，Yan′an 716000,Shaanxi, China；3. Petroleum Production Technology Research Institute of Zhongyuan Oil Field, Puyang 457001,Henan, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp179～184,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Corrosion and scaling in reinjection water system is a serious problem at Shuanghe west district in Yongning oilfield, which affects normal production. Oxygen, bacteria and scaling dietary cationanion exist in water cause the problem. Corrosion and scaling problem was resolved by adding pH regulator, deoxidant, bactericide, corrosion and scaling inhibitor to the reinjection water. The corrosion and scaling degree of the water is weakened, the corrosion rate decreases 89.7% and the scaling degree decreases 72.5%，which satisfy the reinjection standard requirement.
Key words: reinjection water well, corrosion, scaling, control technique
Research on performance of LXX flushing fluid
Li Qin1, Lei Xinyu1, Li Wentao2, Zhang Zhijian1, Chen Dajun1(1.College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chendu 610500, Sichuan, China；2. PetroChina Great Wall Drilling Company, Beijing 124000,China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp185～187,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In order to improve the cementation of cement annulus and formation, realizing effective interlayer good packer, maintaining the normal production of oil well and the smooth implementation of the follow-up measures to increase production, various properties of slurry need to be improved during cementing. In this article, the flushing fluid formula is determined through a large number of laboratory experiments. The washing efficiency of flushing fluid is more than 80% towards low solid phase mud cake. Moreover, it is found that the active material of the fluid is effectively reserved on the surface of the core through the micro analysis，which forms some “active wedges” and improves the cementation ability of interface effectively.
Key words: flushing fluid, washing efficiency, wedge effect, cementing strength, micro analysis
Establishment of pipeline coal-bed methane standard
Zhu Huadong1,2, Luo Qin1,2, Chi Yongjie1,2, Tang Meng1,2, Chen Zhenghua1,2, Zhou Li1,2(1. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Natural Gas Quality and Energy Measurement, CNPC, Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp188～191,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The prospect of transporting coal-bed methane (CBM) by natural gas pipeline network was predicted, which indicated the urgent standardization for pipeline coal-bed methane. Then, natural gas standards, CBM relevant standards and the CBM constituents in China were studied. And suggestions were proposed for the standard based on the research results considering the economic benefits, safety & health and environmental protection factors.
Key words: coal-bed methane, quality standard, formulate, suggestion, index
Development of on-line GC analyzer for natural gas
Feng Hongnian1，Xu Hu2，Ren Yan1，Zhang Jinwei1, Gu Haitao1（1. Focused Photonics (Hangzhou), Inc., Hangzhou 310052, Zhejiang, China; 2.Chongqing Natural Gas Purification Plant General, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chongqing 401220, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp192～195,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: An on-line GC analyzer is developed for natural gas analysis applications. It has the merits of fast time response, high accuracy, low gas consumption and low maintenance cost, etc. Its features and configuration were described in detail. The performance tests show the analyzer performs well and meets the requirement of JJG 1055－2009. Furthermore, the analyzer has been successfully applied to field. The results indicate that the analyzer is excellent and reliable in field and can deal with complex application condition.
Key words: natural gas, on-line GC, development, instrument performance
Research progress of the primary gas calorimeter
Wang Haifeng, Li Jia, Sun Guohua, Song Xiaoping(National Institute of Metrology of China, Beijing 100013, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp196～199,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The progress on the primary gas calorimeter is reviewed. In the whole system of the traceability of the energy metering of natural gas, the primary gas calorimeter was employed for the determination of the calorific value of pure gases, the basic data for the calculation of the calorific value of natural gas based on their composition, which makes the calorific value traceable to SI units. On the other hand, the primary gas calorimeter can also be used to determine the calorific values of mixed gases for the calibration or validation of other measurement methods. There are two stages for the development of the primary gas calorimeter. In the first stage, the original Rossini gas calorimeter and other work followed were founded, and the uncertainty of calorific value of methane is about 0.15%. In the second stage, the revised Rossini gas calorimeter has been founded and its uncertainty is about 0.05%. But the determination of the calorific value of other pure gases except methane and mixed gases by the primary gas calorimeter remain to explore.
Key words: natural gas, energy metering, primary gas calorimeter
Research on oily sludge incineration technology in Jianghan oilfield
Liu Lei, Luo Yue, Liu Qingyun, Zhang Qingwen, Liu Pianpian, Li Fan(College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering，Yangtze University，Jingzhou 434023, Hubei, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp200～203,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In order to solve the problem of oily sludge treatment of Jianghan oilfield，this article evaluated the best ginseng of coal, corrosion resistance, heat of combustion and gas composition, based on the components analysis of oily sludge. The results indicated that Jianghan oilfield oily sludge has the characteristics of high water content, high salt content and low oil content. The oily sludge works best when the content of coal is 60%. Oily sludge burning showed low calorific value, high corrosion rate, burning gas SO2 exceeding badly, low pH of distilled water absorption liquid, easy to cause perforation equipment and acid rain. Therefore, it is unfavorable to use incineration technology for Jianghan oilfield oily sludge because of high water content, high salt content, high corrosion, low oil content, low combustion heat value, and the rain, moist air of Jianghan district and so on.
Key words: oily sludge, coal burning, burning hot, corrosion
Harmless oily sludge treatment technology and its application
Yu Chuntao(Petroleum Production Technology Research Institute of Jilin Oilfield Company, PetroChina ,Songyuan 138000, Jilin, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp204～207,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: A full investigation on the source of oily sludge, storage condition and treatment was carried out, and the technical thinking about sludge harmless treatment of oily sludge was presented. According to the characteristics of sludge formation screening emulsifier, oily sludge profile control agent and the design method of sludge profile control process were formed. This technology was applied in 14 wells of the low permeability reservoir, and the effect was obviously. The cumulative treatment of oily sludge was 4 260 t, cumulative increasing oil production was 850 t, and the amount of water reduction was 6 400 m3. The sludge profile control agent replacing the particulate plugging agent could save cost, the input-output ratio was 1∶2.2, and economic benefit is obvious. This technology can solve the problem of sludge pollution and utilization, and has significant application value.
Key words: oily sludge, sludge profile control agent, harmless, economic benefit
Dynamic simulation of fire relief rate of PSV on pressure vessel
Yang Tianyu, Zhu Haishan, Hao Yun,Cui Yuehong, Qian Huizeng（CNOOC Research Institute, Beijing 100027, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp208～212,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: A full dynamic production model of pressure vessel was developed using HYSYS DynamicsTM by taking a gas field slug catcher as an example. The PSV relieving of slug catcher with different initial pressure and liquid level on external pool fire scenario was studied by the dynamic model. The results showed that initial conditions affected the PSV relief rate significantly. The affection of initial conditions should be considered sufficiently when calculating the maximum PSV relief rate, so as to provide correct basic parameter in PSV sizing and selecting.
Key words: pressure vessel, fire case, PSV relief rate, dynamic simulation
Risk assessment of L-CNG filling stations based on fuzzy comprehensive method
Jiang Yi1, Huang Kun1, Li Xin1,He Huanting2, Wang Yijia1, Shen Kunrong1 （1. Petroleum Engineering Institute of Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, Sichuan, China; 2. Drilling & Production Technology Research Institute, PetroChina Qinghai Oilfield Company, Dunhuang 736202, Gansu, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.2,pp213～216,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Taking a L-CNG filling station as an example, combining the safety standards of L-CNG industry, 13 major safety influence factors were considered from personnel, equipment, and environment aspects of L-CNG filling station by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The evaluation index and weight sets calculation method were determined, the safety evaluation system of L-CNG filling station was set up, and the evaluation score was obtained by calculation in order to achieve the purpose of risk identification. The analysis of calculation results showed that fuzzy comprehensive method in the application of L-CNG filling station risk assessment was feasible.
Key words: L-CNG, filling station, factor, weight, risk assessment, fuzzy comprehensive method