CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS
Discussion of producing MTBE with low sulfur content and recovering bisulfides by optimizing C4 feedstock
Liu Chengjun, Sun Huishan, Wen Shichang, Zhou Xuan(CPECC East-China Design Branch, Qingdao 266071，Shandong，China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp345-351,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: A method of producing MTBE product with low sulfur content and recovering bisulfides(RSSR) was discussed. Based on the boiling point differences of the components and sulfides in the mixed C4 fraction, mixed C4 fraction were sent to a fractionator to separate the light C4 fraction and heavy C4 fraction. The top products were routed to MTBE unit as light C4 fraction, while the heavy C4 fraction were drawn as side product, which mainly contained C5, cis butylene, ethanethiol, iso-propanethiol, etc. The heavy C4 fraction account for about 8%-15% of the total mixed C4 fraction ration. A RSSR recycling feedback line was set on just beneath the lowest side-draw tray of the fractionator mainly to solve the problem of bottom level control due to the small amount of RSSR. The bottom products（mainly RSSR） were sent to a RSSR fractionator, which was specially designed and operated batchwise. Dimethyl-bisulfides and diethyl-bisulfides were separated in the fractionator and used as chemical raw materials or chemical products. The treated light C4 fraction contains no heavy sulfides such as C5 or ethanethiol, so that the total sulfur content of the MTBE produced by the treated light C4 fraction was decreased to below 10 mg/kg. The method has advantages of simple process, no need of outside adsorbents or absorbents, and no additional waste emissions.
Key words: MTBE, sulfur content, mixed C4 fraction, bisulfide, C4 fractionator, RSSR fractionator
Application of CT6-11 low temperature tail gas hydrogenation catalyst on sulfur recovery unit in carbon disulfide plant
Tang Zhonghuai1, Liao Xiaodong1，Kang Li1，Zheng Bin2(1. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China; 2. Development Department of PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610051, Sichuan, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp352-356,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The general situation of a sulfur recovery and tail gas treatment unit in carbon disulfide industry is introduced. The composition of process gas at the beginning of operation is analyzed, and then the data about organic sulfur hydrolysis and gas composition after hydrogenation is obtained. The reasons of higher hydrogen consumption, larger pressure difference and pH value reduction of chilled water are discussed. Combined with catalyst evaluation, corresponding suggestions are proposed. The hydrogenation section of unit runs well after hydrogenation catalyst resulfurized. The results of industrial application show that the combination of CT6-11 low temperature tail gas hydrogenation catalyst and CT6-8 Ti-based catalyst has been applied successfully, which can be applied to similar devices.
Key words: sulfur recovery, tail gas treatment, catalyst, carbon disulfide, CT6-11, CT6-8
Study on the thermogravimetric reaction dynamics of two kinds of FCC slurry
Zhao Xiaolong，Li Huipeng，Zhao Hua，Lu Chuanzhu，Li Zhichao（Chemical and Environmental Department，Liaoning Shihua University， Fushun 113001，Liaoning，China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp357-361,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The thermogravimetric reaction performances of two kinds of FCC slurry from Liaohe Petrochemical Refinery were studied using SDT 2960 Simultaneous DSC-TGA instrument under the protection of nitrogen. The experimental data was fitted by the Coats-Redfern integral method and satisfactory results were obtained. Both of the oil slurry follow the first order kinetics at the low temperature region,and the apparent activation energy were 29.685 kJ/mol and 32.35 kJ/mol, respectively. However, they are consistent with the secondary dynamic model in the high temperature region,and their apparent activation energy were 71.84 kJ/mol and 32.095 kJ/mol, respectively. Cracking reaction mainly occurs at the low temperature region,while condensation reaction does at the high temperature region.
Key words: FCC, slurry， thermogravimetric， fitted， dynamics
Experimental study on regeneration performance of 4A molecular sieve
Liang Zheng1, Li Shuangshuang1, Zhang Liwen2, Zhu Xiaohua3, Tian Jialin1 (1. School of Mechatronic Engineering， Southwest Petroleum University， Chengdu 610500，Sichuan， China； 2. Baoji Oilfield Machinery Co．，Ltd，PetroChina， Baoji 721002，Shaanxi， China； 3. Natural Gas Sales Division of Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company，PetroChina， Chengdu 610017， Sichuan， China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp362-365,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: To optimize regeneration and energy saving，the factors influencing the regeneration effect of 4A molecular sieve used in CNG deep dehydration were studied. Three groups of 4A molecular sieve samples with different adsorption level were collected，and each sample was divided into three groups，heated to 200 ℃，240 ℃ and 260 ℃ for 9 hours，respectively. The desorption quantity of samples was measured，and the relation curves among heating time，regeneration temperature，and desorption quantity per unit mass (η) were calculated. The data showed that the suitable regeneration temperature of 4A molecular sieve was about 240 ℃，and the heating time was at least 3 hours. In order to evaluate the regeneration effect of molecular sieve, the regeneration temperature of CNG dehydration plant was risen from 200 ℃ to 240 ℃ with the same equipment and other operating parameters. The results indicated that the regeneration power consumption increased by 3.7 kW·h，but the heating time cut down by 1.5 h and the regeneration gas consumption decreased by 33.4 m3，the dehydration ability could be promoted from 18×103 m3 to 22×103 m3.
Key words: 4A molecular sieve, regeneration temperature, heating time, CNG， dehydration, regeneration, energy saving
Study on adsorpting basic nitrogen compounds from oil with Al-SBA-15 zeolite
Xu Xiaoyu, Shen Jian(College of Chemistry，Chemical Engineering and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001， Liaoning， China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp366-369,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The denitrogenation technological conditions and adsorbability of the Al-SBA-15（50） mesoporous zeolite to remove the basic nitrogen compounds from quinoline in dodecane solution by adsorption were studied. The results show that the optimum temperature of basic nitrogen compounds adsorbed on the Al-SBA-15（50） is 140 ℃, the suitable mass ratio of adsorbent to oil is 1∶30, and the suitable adsorption time is 20 minutes. The corresponding capacity of adsorption is 30.6 mg/g, and the denitrogenation rate is 68.02%. The adsorption dynamics follows the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics equation.
Key words: mesoporous zeolite, adsorption, denitrogenation
Study on natural gas desulfurization process based on hydrate formation
Wang Haixiu(College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering， Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology，Maoming 525000，Guangdong, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp370-373,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The presence of H2S in natural gas affects the storage, transportation and utilization of natural gas and environment so that it must be desulfurized. Conventional natural gas desulfurization processes include dry desulfurization, membrane separation process, wet desulfurization and biological desulfurization, etc. The principle of natural gas desulfurization by hydrate is that H2S is preferred to generate hydrate and then enters into hydrate phase to achieve desulfurization. Compared with the conventional methods, desulfurization process by hydrate formation has the advantages of simple process flow, low energy consumption, environmental protection, etc., so it has extensive application perspective.
Key words: hydrate, natural gas, desulfurization, separation technology
Implementation of RCM technology in natural gas purification plant
Liu Qicong1， Fan Qin2， Xiong Shengyong2， Lian Xingyuan3(1. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company，
Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China; 2. Wanzhou Branch of Chongqing Natural Gas Purification Plant General, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chongqing 404001, China; 3. North Western Sichuan Gas District, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company，Jiangyou 621709, Sichuan, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp374-379,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Researching key point of the flow and implementation of Reliability Centered Maintenance(RCM) technology，and relying on the technical standard based on RCM technology and engineering experience，typical equipment failure modes of natural gas purification device were listed according to the characteristics of purification equipment. The implementation of the technology was built based on existing maintenance records of the purifying device， which provided the basis of RCM technology for popularization and application in natural gas purification device.
Key words: Reliability Centered Maintenance（RCM）, natural gas，purification device
Experimental study on circulation pressurization of carbon dioxide hydration reaction
Hu Xiangjiang, Qi Yingxia, Shi Junke(University of Shanghai for Science and Technology， Shanghai 200093, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp380-384,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Based on the excellent cooling characteristics of CO2 as a natural working substance and development prospects in the field of many hydrate technology, using the characteristics of pressure rising sharply under the phase equilibrium transition temperature of hydrate, through the innovation design of process, the carbon dioxide hydrate formation and decomposition alternate process is used to realize the pressurization system. Based on thermodynamic analysis of carbon dioxide level cascade refrigeration and combining with the phase equilibrium temperature, the experiment results show that the dynamics of 0.3wt% SDS additives is more advantageous to promote the formation of carbon dioxide hydrate in double-tube reactor compare with 4wt% THF thermodynamics additive. The synthesis time is 60 minutes at 1.4 MPa and -2 ℃. In SDS solution of 0.3wt%, lower temperature is more beneficial to the formation of hydrate, the critical temperature is close to -2 ℃. When it is lower than -2 ℃, the solution icing may block pipe. When the two sets of tube reactors are used alternately, the optimum cyclic temperature is as follows: the synthesis temperature is -2 ℃, the decomposition temperature is 10 ℃, and the shortest cycle time is 55 minutes. The carbon dioxide gas under high pressure is decomposed by condensation throttle to a low temperature of -36 ℃.
Key words: carbon dioxide, circulation pressurization system, hydrate, double-tube reactor
Analysis and elimination of cold box abnormal liquid-flooding in natural gas liquefaction process
Zheng Zhiwei, Yuan Qing, Wu Rui(CNOOC Guangdong LNG Co., Ltd, Zhuhai 519060, Guangdong, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp385-388,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The MRC technology is a widely used natural gas liquefaction technology, and it has the advantages of simple process, compact layout, less equipment, etc., but the liquid-flooding phenomenon of cold box (plate-fin heat exchanger) occurs easily, which leads to the yield reduction or production interruption. This article describes the cold box liquid-flooding phenomenon of Zhuhai natural gas liquefaction plant, such as pressure, liquid level, differential pressure and temperature, analyses the reasons and proposals treatment methods. It is helpful for similar LNG plants to judge and handle the cold box liquid-flooding problem in time.
Key words: cold box, liquid-flooding, liquefaction process, mixed refrigerant, temperature gradient
Optimization research on C3 recovery process of Shanghai natural gas processing plant
Gao Chao， Liu Shengguo（Shanghai Natural Gas Processing Plant, Shanghai 200030，China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp389-394,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The C3 recovery process of Shanghai natural gas processing plant was optimized by using HYSYS software. The effects of the proportion of feed B to the chiller, heat load of demethanizer reboiler and refrigeration load of propane compressor on C3 yield were systematically studied under different pressure. The results show that when the feed gas temperature is 20 ℃, processing capacity is 1 000×103 m3/d, and pressure is 4 500 kPa, the by-pass valve of feed B should be closed completely, and the heat load of demethanizer reboiler is reduced to 125.98 kW，thereby the yield of C3 is up to about 97.4%；when the pressure is 4 000 kPa, by-pass valve of feed B should be closed completely, suitable heat load of demethanizer reboiler is 61 kW，thus, the C3 yield reaches about 90.2%; when the pressure is 3 600 kPa, the suitable heat load of demethanizer reboiler is 55 kW，by-pass valve of feed B should be closed completely too, the refrigeration load of propane compressor is 33%, and the C3 yield is about 81.56%.
Key words: natural gas, C3 yield, heat duty, HYSYS, process optimization
Calculation methods of natural gas compressibility factor based on the gas composition
Liang Guangchuan, Zuo Guo（Petroleum and Gas Engineering College, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, Sichuan, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp395-400,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Natural gas compressibility factor Z is one of the most important physical parameters in the natural gas engineering calculations, and the determining methods mainly include Standing-Katz chart method, laboratory experiments method, equations of state law method and the empirical formulas method. Due to the usage limitations of the former two methods，the application advantages of equations of state law method and the empirical formulas method become increasingly evident. In this paper, the calculation accuracy of equations that calculate compressibility factor based gas composition was evaluated. The equations include AGA8-92DC, Piper-DAK, Piper-Mahmoud, Elsharkawy-DAK and Elsharkawy-Mahmoud. These five calculation formulas to be valuated were written into Visual Basic 6.0 and 113 measured values of acidic lean gas compressibility factor were used to compare with the calculated values of these five formulas. The comparison indicates that firstly for the lean gas with carbon dioxide at low pressure or medium pressure, the calculation error of AGA8-92DC is less than others；secondly, for the lean gas with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide at low or medium pressure, the calculation error of Piper-Mahmoud is minimal compared to the other correlations. In addition, this study presents that when the temperature of natural gas increases, the errors of calculated values by these five formulas will all decrease compared with the original calculation errors.
Key words: compressibility factor, equations of state law method and the empirical formulas method, Visual Basic 6.0, acidic lean gas, calculation error
Analysis of natural gas interchangeability under the condition of multiple gas mixed transportation：A case study in natural gas pipe network system of Zhejiang province
Liu Wu1， Ji Guowen1， Ji Shouhong2， He Chunlong2（1. School of Petroleum Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, Sichuan, China；2. Zhejiang Zheenergy Natural Gas Operation Co., Ltd, Hangzhou 310006, Zhejiang, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp401-404,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The natural gas market has entered a stage of rapid development in Zhejiang province, and six supply systems of gas source mixed transportation will be gradually formed during the twelfth five-year period. The diversification of gas source has improved the security of natural gas supply system and the interchangeability of different gas sources, however, must been taken into consideration when getting into the main pipeline network due to the differences of natural gas origin, production process, and gas source, especially the air components and characteristics between natural gas and liquefied natural gas. Using Wobbe index method and America Gas Association (A.G.A) method, the interchangeability of five major sources of natural gas in Zhejiang province was analyzed. Referring to the foreign methods of solving gas interchangeability problem, solutions of gas pipeline network supply under the structure of gas source mixed transportation in Zhejiang province are put forward.
Key words: multiple gas source，mixed transmission，interchangeability，Wobbe index method，A.G.A method，solution
Influencing factors of friction reducer in shale slickwater fracturing
Chen Pengfei, Tang Yongfan,Liu Youquan, Wu Wengang, Sun Chuan, Zhang Yadong, Long Shunmin (Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company，Chengdu 610213,Sichuan, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp405-408,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Large displacement and large amount of fluid volume fracturing is increasingly becoming an effective way of shale gas reservoir development. The friction reducer performance is the critical performance of volume fracturing which directly determines the success or failure of the volume fracturing. This paper studied the relationship among “shear velocity, linear velocity, the Reynolds number, relative molecular mass, concentration and water quality”with the friction reducer performance. The results showed that using shear rate similar principle could not effectively evaluate friction reducer performance of slickwater. The performance of friction reducing was recommended to be evaluated by the linear velocity and Reynolds similar principle. When the friction reducers had similar structure and consistent effective concentration, the bigger relative molecular mass, the friction reducing performance was better. But high relative molecular mass would cause the cut-resistant and dissolving performance poorly. The concentration of friction reducer increased, the friction reducing performance improved, but when the concentration increased to a certain value, the friction reducing performance increased smaller; when friction reducer concentration was lower than a certain value，the cut-resistant performance was poor. Water quality had an impact on friction reducer performance，namely higher the salinity, better the cationic friction reducer performance .
Key words: volume fracturing, friction reducer, friction reducing performance, relative molecular mass, linear velocity
Research and application of tight oil reservoir fracturing fluid in Shaxi Temple layer of Central Sichuan
Sun Chuan,Liu Youquan,Xiong Ying,Zheng Kai,Wu Wengang,Chen Pengfei,Zhang Qian(Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company，Chengdu 610213,Sichuan, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp409-412,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The tight reservoir of Sichuan Shaxi Temple layer has characteristics of extremely low porosity and low permeability, and the fracturing process requires to pump slickwater with large emission to form complex fracture networks in formation, then pump gel fracturing fluid to create main fracture and form a large volume of connective fracture network. Due to the composite application of polyacrylamide slickwater and low molecular guar gum fracturing fluid, a mixed fracturing fluid technology of “slickwater + crosslinked gel” has been developed, which is suitable to Shaxi Temple reservoir in Central Sichuan. Slickwater has characteristics of low friction and high clay stable performance, crosslinked fracturing fluid has characteristics of excellent shear resistance and low core damage, and the mixed fracturing fluid has good demulsification performance and high flowback rate. Field test results show that “slickwater + crosslinked gel” technology has good effect of reservoir stimulation, which was successful applied in G36 well,G117 well, the drag reduction rate reached 61.5%～64.8%, flowback rate was more than 40%, interface of the flowback fluid and the oil is clear and testing oil production achieved 45.1t/d.
Key words: Shaxi Temple, fracturing, slickwater, crosslinked gel, demulsification, damage
Research and application of crosslinked acid-adding proppant fracturing technology
Che Mingguang1,2，Wang Yonghui1,2，Yuan Xuefang3，Peng Jianxin3，Zhu Raoyun3，Ma Binlin4（1.Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development-Langfang，Langfang 065007，Hebei, China；2.Key Laboratory of Reservoir Stimulation，PetroChina，Langfang 065007，Hebei, China；3.PetroChina Tarim Oilfield Company，Korla 841000，Xinjiang,China；4. Bazhou Branch of Sinopec Jianghan Petroleum Engineering Co. Ltd.，Korla 841000，China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp413-415,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The carbonate reservoirs in Tarim Oilfield are generally characterized with strong heterogeneity, complex relation between natural fractures and pore space, and unacceptable acid-fracturing effect in the reservoir with poor fissures and pore. On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of acid-fracturing and sand fracturing, the research and field trials of acid-adding proppant fracturing is proposed. The slurry of acid-adding proppant fracturing is crosslinked acid, compound artificial fractures with acidizing etch and propping agent are formed, which enlarges the contact area between reservoir and fractures. Because of the good rheological property of heat-resistant and carrier performance, high viscosity and sand laden are kept during treatment. Based on the acid-rock reaction and conductivity experiments, different acid strength of crosslinking acid is used to transport proppant in different treating stages with the purpose of high fracture conductivity. Eight wells have been treated by this technique, with a construction success ratio of 100, as this technology integrates the advantages of acid fracturing and prop fracturing, a new approach to develop lean carbonate reservoir is promising in Tarim Oilfield.
Key words: carbonate, crosslinked acid, acid-adding proppant fracturing, conductivity, acid-fracturing
Application of FracproPT software in secondary sanding fracturing simulation and construction parameters optimization
Zhao Jinzhou1， He Xianjie1， Li Yongming1， Shi Yan2， Liu Jinjun2（1.State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation(Southwest Petroleum University)，Chengdu 610500, Sichuan，China；2. Zhundong Production
Plant of Xinjiang Oilfield Company， Fukang 831511， Xinjiang, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp416-420,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: X well field is located in the east of Junggar Basin，which is a medium porosity，low permeable and deep zone heavy oil reservoir. The oil layer is loose and brittle，and the oil has high density，high viscosity，low freezing point and so on. So，it is very difficult to exploit this reservoir. For the development of such reservoir，secondary sanding fracturing is required so as to form a high flow conductivity fracture which is shorter and wider. At first，connected with prophase fracturing construction data of 13 wells in X well field，FracproPT software is used to simulate the construction of secondary sanding fracturing. Besides，fracture conformation parameters are compared and analyzed between the secondary sanding fracturing and conventional fracturing. Finally，the construction parameters of secondary sanding fracturing are optimized, such as secondary sanding proportion，pump off time，delivery capacity and sand. The result demonstrates that the fracturing construction simulation of X well field is very accurate with FracproPT software，secondary sanding fracturing is in favour of controlling fracture height effectively，expanding fracture width and it also has an effect of enhancing fracture conductivity. This research has certain guiding significance to optimize the secondary sanding fracturing design of heavy oil reservoir and to improve stimulate effect of secondary sanding fracturing.
Key words: heavy oil reservoir,f racturing, FracproPT, secondary sanding, simulation analysis
Optimization of acid system for matrix acidizing in complex sandstone gas reservoir
Gou Bo1, Guo Jianchun1, He Chunming1,3, Lu Dengyun2, Zhang Mingyou2, Lei Yueyu4(1.State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation(Southwest Petroleum University), Chengdu 610500, Sichuan, China; 2. The No.2 Exploration Co., Tarim Petroleum Exploration & Development Commanding Headquarters, CNPC, Korla 841000, Xinjiang, China; 3.Langfang Branch of the Research Institute of Exploration and Development, CNPC, Langfang 065007, Hebei, China; 4. Hejiang Gas Production Operation Area of PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company, Hejiang 646200, Sichuan, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp421-427,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The option of acid system in complex sandstone acidizing was difficult due to the intricacy mineral composition. The influence of acid system on acidizing effect of two types of typical sandstone in TZ gas reservoir was analyzed by physical simulation experiments combining with SEM. Thereby, the acid system of two kinds of sandstone reservoir was optimized. The results showed that because the hydrochloric acid (15wt%) acidification alone could not remove drilling mud pollution in the reservoir, acid system of preflush (15wt%HCl) should be incorporated with main acid (12wt%HCl+1wt%HF) appling to the unconsolidated sand reservoir with high carbonate mineral content (more than 20%), and the amount of acid should be decreased. However, the sandstone reservoir with high argillaceous content and cementation strength should increase the acid amount and integrated the preflush (12wt%HCl) with main acid (13.5wt %HCl+2wt %HF). The experimental results suggest that one set of acid system is difficult to meet the needs of complex sandstone reservoir acidizing. The field application shows that new acid systems can remove the damage easily and improve the acidizing effect.
Key words: complex sandstone, gas reservoir, matrix acidizing, acid system, optimization
Research on high temperature rheological properties of water-based temperature resistance drilling fluids
Shen Li, Chen Erding, Zhang Haiqing（Drilling Engineering Technology Company, Shengli Petroleum Engineering Co., Ltd, Dongying 257064, Shandong, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp428-432,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: High temperature rheological properties of drilling fluid have important influences on fast and safe drilling in deep or ultra-deep wells. Rheological properties of drilling fluid after high temperature aging and cooling do not represent the rheological properties at high temperature conditions. High temperature rheological properties of water-based temperature resistance drilling fluid system were studied with the Model 50SL high-temperature high-pressure rheometer, so the rheological parameters were obtained, and the maximum experimental temperature reached 220℃. The effects of temperature, density, polyalcohol, polymer and salt on rheological properties of drilling fluid were studied. The results show that plastic viscosity and temperature complies with the relation of quadratic function. Plastic viscosity decreases exponentially with increasing temperature, and the higher the density, the greater influence by temperature. In lowtemperature range(less than 150 ℃), polyol and polymer have obvious influence on rheological properties of drilling fluid system, and less influence in high temperature range (150-220 ℃). Salt has more obvious influence on rheological properties of high density drilling fluid system. The study provides guidance for regulating rheological properties of drilling fluid system in field operation.
Key words: drilling fluid, high temperature, rheological property, rheometer
Research and application of resin type well control fluid
Fang Yanwei，Yang Jiawei，Ma Yuliang, Miao Qinglin（CNPC Xibu Drilling Engineering Company Limited，Shanshan 838200，Xinjiang，China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp433-435,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Resin type well control fluid is a solid-free liquid, and the liquid looks like jelly because the free water of system is trapped by high absorbent resin, so that it has good reservoir protection. The jelly has big particle size and a certain strength, as well it is deformable and easy to flow, so it covers the reserve surface and prevents water leakage. The laboratory study demonstrates that the well control fluid has good reserve protection ability. In site construction，the well control fluid has stable performance, low filter loss, strong carry capacity, and good compatibility with formation water. The application of low pressure well shows it is useful in preventing leakage and reducing backflow time. The moisture content of outlet liquid is low, and the liquid production increases after entering the normal production process. It is advantageous to the productivity recovery.
Key words: well control fluid, resin, reservoir protection, application
Terminology standards of oil & gas industry under the guidance of integrated standardization
Yao Yuan1,2, Gao Shengping1, Zhang Yu1， Wu Qiaomei1(1. Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing 100083, China; 2. China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp436-441,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The standards system of oil & gas industry is a huge system, which covers almost all of the aspects of oil & gas industry such as exploration, development, refinery, storage and transportation,etc. It is obvious that terminologies play a very important role in the international communication and cooperation. Through detailed study on the standards of oil & gas industry, it shows that the professional categories of those terminology and vocabulary standards are not complete, the coverage is too narrow, and the classification crosses each other. And those problems relate to a number of multiple sets professional standards. Using integrated standardization approach and based on the overall planning of the oil industry, this paper analyzes the status of the existing terminology standards systematically, then coordinating different professional categories to conduct research and developing the principles of integrated oil industry terminology standardization should be followed: oil characteristics, conciseness and systematicness. The terminology standards framework of oil & gas industry has been initially established, and it is suggested to vigorously promote the guiding role of integrated standardization in the oil & gas industry standardization. Meanwhile, a pilot-type terminology standard preparing is also needed in order to improve the systematic, scientific and applicability of standard.
Key words: oil & gas industry, terminology standards, integrated standardization
Metering performance testing and application of gas flow standard facilities based on combined turbine flow meters
He Fei1, Chen Qi1,2, Wang Hui1,2, Qiu Fengchun1,2(1.Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company,Chengdu 610213,Sichuan, China; 2.Chengdu Verification Branch of National Oil and Gas
Large Flow Rate Measurement Station,Chengdu 610213,Sichuan, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp442-447,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: This paper introduces a set of gas flow standard facilities based on combined turbine flow meters, which is newly built by Chengdu Verification Branch of National Oil and Gas Large Flow Rate Measurement Station, including the process of the standard facilities, testing requirements and results of the metering performance. The standard facilities are used for actual flow verification of the natural gas flow meter and guaranteeing the accuracy and reliability of onsite trade measurement of natural gas. By analyzing the testing data, it has confirmed that the uncertainty of standard test results is better than 0.33%. Both the repeatability and stability of test results meet the verification requirements for gas flow measuring instruments.
Key words: turbine, gas flow standard facilities, actual gas flow verification, repeatability, stability, reproducibility
Field application of testing H2S in drilling fluid by iodometric method
Chen Huabing1, Li Hongxing1, Wan Wei2，Gan Jianhua1, Ye Changwen1, Cao Wangchun1（1. Chuanxi Drilling Company of CCDE, Chengdu 510500, Sichuan, China; 2. Drilling Fluid Company of CCDE, Chengdu 510500, Sichuan, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp448-451,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: According to the acid gas field of Sichuan area, an important project of Sichuan gas field exploration and development is that how to determine hydrogen sulfide content accurately in the drilling fluids during the drilling process in the region, and by which means to remove hydrogen sulfide from drilling fluids so as to prevent its effect on the drilling operation. This paper describes the source,existing state and harms of hydrogen sulfide in drilling fluids, introduces a method of measuring hydrogen sulfide by iodometric method, and studies the influence of the adding amount of test solution. At the same time, this method has been used in several wells in Sichuan area, and the attentions of testing hydrogen sulfide by iodometric method have been summed up, which has very important meanings for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in drilling fluid.
Key words: iodometric method, hydrogen sulfide, Sichuan, field application
Influence of produced polymer on wastewater stability in JZ9-3 Oilfield
Liu Guangcheng1, Pan Yiyong1,2, Gong Xiaoping2, Zhang Ling1，Gao Jianchong1（1. CNOOC (China) Co., Ltd. Tianjin Branch, Tianjin 300452, China; 2. College of Resources and Environmenta, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, Sichuan, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp452-457,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: According to the composition of wastewater produced from polymer flooding in Bohai JZ9-3 Oilfield, influences of produced polymers with different molecular weight, concentration and hydrolytic degree on the apparent viscosity, particle sizes of oil droplets, Zeta potential, dynamic interfacial tension, equalize interfacial tension and interfacial dilatational properties were measured. The results indicated that the produced polymer with low molecular weight could improve the apparent viscosity of wastewater, and the Zeta potential of O/W emulsion and the oil-water interfacial film strength were increased after adsorption of polymer in oil-water contact. Consequently the wastewater emulsion stability was increased, and the coalescence efficiency of oil droplets in wastewater was decreased greatly, so that the difficulty of polymer-contained sewage reaching standard became harder.
Key words: produced polymer, polymer-contained sewage, stability, Zeta potential, oil-water interfacial elasticity
Application of SIL software evaluating method in natural gas processing device
Xia Taiwu1, Jiang Wei1, Song Liang2，Yuan Shuhai1(1.Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, Sichuan, China; 2. CNPC(Turkmenintan)amu darya river Gas company). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp458-462,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: A series of safety protection measures, including safety instrument system (SIS), are equipped for natural gas processing device. At present, the conventional safety integrity level (SIL) evaluation method is mainly applied to determine whether the SIS in design or production plant in service could meet the safe production. In the paper, the characteristics of SIL assessment and the relationship of SIL, hazard and operability analysis (HAZOP), and asset integrity management are analyzed, and the significance of SIL evaluation is discussed. At the same time, a method of SIL evaluation is proposed, and the changing is introduced from the method to SIL evaluation software. Application results show that, in theory, it is feasible to convert the conventional SIL evaluation method into the SIL evaluation software. Once the strong SIL evaluation software being applied, the investment of human and financial resources would be greatly reduced in SIL evaluation, and the evaluating results would be more objective and credible.
Key words: risk, safety integrity level (SIL), safety instrument system (SIS), hazard and operability analysis (HAZOP), layers of protection analysis(LOPA), risk graph method
Application of acetone oxime in the boiler feed system in Injin Natural Gas Purification Plant
Tang Xi, Qu Yang, Jiang Yu, Wu Gaoliang, Qin Jing(Yinjin Branch of Chongqing Natural Gas Purification Plant General，PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chongqing 401236,China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.43, NO.4,pp463-466,2014（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Because of the reasons that hydrazine is flammable and explosive, slowly reacts with oxygen, toxic, etc., it is substituted by acetone oxime as deoxidant in Yinjin Branch of Chongqing Natural Gas Purification Plant General. Analysis results show that the acetone oxime has better deoxidization effect and lower toxicity than hydrazine, and it does not affect the water vapor system, so that it can protect the equipment and has inhibit effect. Further more, acetone oxime can also reduce the production cost, therefore, it is more economical and practical.
Key words: acetone oxime, hydrazine, deoxidan