CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS
Adsorption and removal of the nitride in simulated oil with silica-supported heteropoly acid
Cheng Yanru, Wang Keqiang, Xiao Changyu, Zhang Qikai, Wang Lei, Liu Dan(College of Petrochemical Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp1-5,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Using silica gel as a carrier, three different kinds of heteropolyacids were loaded to prepare a kind of adsorbent by equal volume impregnation method. Using the mixed solution of quinoline and dodecane as simulated oil, the influence of heteropolyacid loading, reaction time, reaction temperature, and mass ratio of adsorbent to oil on denitrification rate of oil were studied. The results showed that under the conditions of the acid loading of 40%, the reaction temperature of 50 ℃, the reaction time of 45 minutes, and the mass ratio of adsorbent to oil of 1∶5, the nitride in the oil can be effectively removed with the presence of adsorbent, and the denitrification rate of oil is more than 90%. The physical and chemical properties of the adsorbent were characterized by FT-IR.
Key words: silica gel, heteropolyacids, carrier, simulated oil, adsorbent
Quantitative research of combination vortex motion in hydrocyclone
Yang Lin1, Tian Jialin1,2, Yang Zhi1, Ren Liancheng3, Zhao Yun4, Liu Gang1, Yuan Changfu1（1. School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China; 2. School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China; 3. Chongqing University of Science & Technology, Chongqing 401331, China; 4. Material Management Department, CNPC Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Company Ltd, Chengdu 610051, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp6-13,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In order to further promote mechanism study on the basic theory of hydrocyclone separation technology, using the Reynolds stress turbulence model in CFD, three-dimensional value simulation on the key characteristic parameters of internal flow field of hydrocyclone was carried on, and the correctness was verified. The relative errors are all within 5% compared with the related reports. On this basis, the statistical average method was used to deal with the data of key regional parameters by statistical average processing. The related data and distribution curves show that the fluid can be divided into the combination vortex motion (including the forced vortex, quasifree vortex) and boundary layer, and the corresponding motion characteristics were obtained and the position of corresponding radius in each zone was quantified. The important conclusions were also drawn by analyzing that combination vortex motion index n is not a constant of the original theory in the flow field, but is a related function of two segments along the specific location of the radius r. The quantitative empirical formulas were given according to data linear regression. Compared with the calculation of original theory and contrast analysis of related reports, the correctness of the empirical formulas was verified, which further improves the original basic theory of flow field and also provides a new way for the simulation study of flow field.
Key words: hydrocyclone, flow field, CFD, statistical average method, combination vortex index, experience formula
Preparation of biodiesel from litsea cubeba kernel oil
Zhang Qiuyun1, Zhou Kaizhi2, Ma Peihua2(1. School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anshun University, Anshun 561000, China；2. School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp14-17,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: By the method of coprecipitation and wet impregnation, the solid acid catalyst of SO2-4/Fe2O3-TiO2 was prepared and used to catalyze litsea cubeba kernel oil and ethanol to prepare biodiesel. The preparation conditions of biodiesel were optimized. The results showed that when the molar ratio of ethanol to Litsea cubeba kernel oil was 16∶1, the catalyst dosage was 10.0 wt%, the reaction time was 8.0 h at ethanol refluxing temperature of 78 ℃, the biodiesel yield reached 44.9%, which indicated that the catalyst has higher catalytic activity for biodiesel production.
Key words: solid acid, catalyst, litsea cubeba kernel oil, biodiesel
Simulation and operating parameters optimization of minus pressure flash technology for crude stabilization process
Wang Yating1, Li Jia2, Wang Lin1, Cao Jie3(1.China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China；2. Oil & Gas Gathering Unit of Hekou Oil Production Plant, Shengli Oilfield, Dongying 257000, China; 3. PetroChina West Pipeline Company, Jiayuguan 735100, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp18-21,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The minus pressure flash technology of crude stabilization was simulated by using process simulation software with TBP-NG component model and the comprehensive benefits under different operating parameters were predicted and analyzed to determine the optimal operating parameters. In process simulation, the TBP distillation data of crude oil and test data of natural gas components were adopted to characterize the feed of stabilizer, and the simulation of actual process was created by Aspen HYSYS, and the simulation results were compared with the actual operating parameters to verify the accuracy of simulation calculation. The processes under various stabilizer operating pressure, compressor outlet pressure, stripping gas flow and feed temperature were simulated and the corresponding product yield and energy consumption were analyzed comprehensively to determine the optimal operating parameters. The analysis result showed that the light hydrocarbon yield is higher when the operating pressure ranges from -0.065 MPa to -0.06 MPa; the stripping gas technology is effective to increase the light hydrocarbon yield; and the comprehensive benefit is higher when the inlet temperature ranges from 75 ℃ to 90 ℃.
Key words: minus pressure flash, crude stabilization, true boiling point distillation, simulation, optimization of operating parameters
Study on the foaming of MDEA desulfurization solution
Zhu Wenzhao1, Peng Xiujun1, Ye Hui2(1．Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company，Chengdu 610213, China; 2. Natural Gas Purification Plant, Northwest Sichuan Gas Field, PetroChina
Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company，Jiangyou 621709, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp22-27,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Alkylol amine technique is adopted at natural gas processing plant in a large scale, and MDEA or formula solvents are mainly used to purify sour natural gas. Because of the poor anti-pollution ability of MDEA, as well as the degradation, deterioration and corrosion of alkanolamine solution, solution foaming always occurs, which affects the smooth operation of the unit and may even lead to substandard product gas, solvents loss and plant shutdown. In order to solve the problem, many experiments were carried based on foaming mechanism, and the influence of different impurities in MDEA on foaming of desulfurization solution were systematic analyzed, which would provide reference for actual production.
Key words: MDEA, desulfurization， factors caused foaming
Calculative methods of sulfur recovery rate for Claus sulfur recovery unit
Yan Chongrong1， Ni Wei2， Li Yang3(1．Central Sichuan Oil and Gas District, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company，Suining 629000, China; 2. Development Department, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company，Chengdu 610051, China; 3. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company，Chengdu 610213, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp28-38,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The main calculation formulas of sulfur recovery rate for Claus sulfur recovery unit were introduced, and the calculative methods of total sulfur recovery rate for sulfur recovery unit with tail gas treatment were also presented. The determination of sulfur volume contents in tail gas and tail gas flow rate by calculating the nitrogen balance, carbon balance and sulfur balance were discussed detailedly.
Key words: sulfur recovery rate, calculation method, nitrogen balance, carbon balance, sulfur balance
Energy consumption analysis and improvement of 0.2×106 t/a catalytic cracking unit
Huang Yong1,2，Wang Ningbo3，Wang Mingfeng3，Zhang Shuqin1, Zhang Juanli1, Ma Xiaoxun2（1. Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum (Group) Co., Ltd, Xi’an 710075, China；2. School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China；3. Hydrocarbon Research Center of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum (Group) Co., Ltd, Xi’an 710075, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp33-37,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Based on the three-link theory of the material balance, namely heat balance, momentum balance, and exergy balance, the reaction-regeneration system was calculated. Results showed that excessive fluidization air and burning dry gas would lead to high velocity, short residence time, low oxygen concentration and high partial pressure of steam in the coke-burning drum. Meanwhile, it would reduce catalyst activity, the burning heat and reutilization of exhaust-heat boiler, which caused the increasing of unit energy consumption. By decreasing the air flow, stopping burning the dry gas, reducing gasoline recycle ratio and increasing the ratio of catalyst to oil, the energy consumption can be reduced. The energy transforms efficiency was improved by reforming the waste heat boiler which could optimize the heat exchange, reduce the heat transfer exergy loss and so on. The energy-saving effect is obvious and the total energy consumption of devices reduced by about 31.04%.
Key words: fluid catalytic cracking, energy consumption, energy-saving
Operating commentary and optimization of condensed oil stabilization equipment
Ye Bo1, Cao Dong1, Xiong Yong1, Yu Zhanming1，Li Li2(1. Chongqing Natural Gas Purification Plant General, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chongqing 401220, China; 2. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp38-42,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The condensed oil distillation unit faced a series of problems including the system clogging caused by material emulsification, the excess H2S content in discharged gas field water, and the excess mechanical impurities in stable condensate oil, etc. in a natural gas processing plant in central Asia, which seriously affected the normal operation of device. Aiming at these problems, the reasons of process and equipment were analyzed and a process optimization scheme was put forward. The unit runs well after optimization.
Key words: condensed oil stabilization, emulsified gas field water, mechanical impurity, threephase separator, optimization
Application of low temperature hydrogenation catalyst CT6-11 in Zhenhai refinery
Jiang Yalun1, Wang Yang1, Zhu Hongyang2, Yang Yuchuan2(1. Refining Second Unit, Sinopec Zhenhai Refinery & Chemical Co., Ltd, Ningbo 315207, China; 2. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp43-47,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: This paper introduces the operation status of 70×103 t/a sulfur recovery and tail gas treating unit and low temperature hydrogenation catalyst CT6-11 in Zhenhai Refinery. The running result in recent months shows that CT6-11 has a good low temperature hydrolysis performance. Hydrogenation conversion of SO2 can reach 100%, and COS hydrolysis rate is over 99%. After S-zorb regenerated flue gas is introduced into the tail gas hydrogenation unit, the unit runs smoothly, the operating parameters are normal, the catalyst keeps high activity, and the emission concentration of sulfur dioxide after treating S-zorb regenerated flue gas is far lower than the national environmental protection standard of 960 mg/m3.
Key words: sulfur recovery, CT6-11 catalyst, tail gas hydrogenation, low temperature, S-zorb
Suggestion on correction of carbon dioxide emission factor of refinery hydrogen plant in China
Cui Xiangyu, Xu Shuangqing, Li Xingchun, Xu Wenjia, Sun Binglin(CNPC Research Institute of Safety and Environmental Technology, Beijing 102206, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp48-50,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In the calculation of greenhouse gas emission inventories of petroleum refining companies in China, the carbon dioxide emissions factor of refinery hydrogen plant, 473.6 tonnes CO2/106 m3 H2 produced, recommended in the American Petroleum Institute’s Compendium of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Methodologies for the Oil and Natural Gas Industry, is widely applied or referenced in China. Since the emission factor is based on hydrogen volume, and the definitions of standard temperature and pressure (STP) are different between the United States and China, besides, the feed gas compositions are also different, it was recommended that the emission factor should be amended to 512.2 tonnes CO2/106 m3 H2 produced when used in China.
Key words: emission factor, emission inventory, hydrogen plant, greenhouse gas, correction
Development and performance testing of the new LNG loading immersed pump
Tai Xiaoliang1, Chen Jie1, Xiao Haitao2, Chen Qi2, Hua Yihuai1, Gai Xiaogang1（1. Research & Development Department of CNOOC Gas & Power Group，Beijing 100027, China；2. Dalian Deep Blue Pump Co. Ltd., Dalian 116031, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp51-53,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The imported cryogenic horizontal centrifugal pump is widely used for LNG loading pump in domestic small and medium natural gas liquefaction plant. The pumps have some disadvantages, such as expensive price, easy leaking, large LNG loss, and complex installation and removal. The immersed pump was considered to be used for LNG loading pump, and the technical research and equipment development have been completed. Relying on actual LNG plant, the equipment performance testing was also finished to realize the localization and engineering of LNG loading pump.
Key words: LNG, loading pump, immersed pump
Research of utilizing gas pressure energy of gas-distributing station to liquefy natural gas based on the cold energy of MRC
Ma Guoguang1, Gao Jun1, Wei Xiangdong2，Li Jin2（1. State Key Laboratory of Oil & Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation，Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China; 2. Nanchang Department, PetroChina East Pipeline Company, Nanchang 330000, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp54-59,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In order to improve the liquefied rate of utilizing gas pressure energy of gas-distributing station to liquefy natural gas, the mixed refrigerant cycle(MRC) was increased in the process. The natural gas liquefaction processes include pre-cooling of LNG before expander and external cooling after expander. The objective function of the max annual average total profit is established to analyze the effect of degrees sensitivity on the max annual average total profit of two liquefaction processes. The results of analysis and calculation indicate that MRC before the expander process can realize higher economic benefit than MRC after the expander.
Key words: gas-distributing station, mixed refrigerant, LNG, expansion, economic benefit
Analysis on comprehensive utilization of oilfield associated gas
Cao Dengju,Liu Zhongchi,Wu Lina,Xue Xiaojun, Zheng Boxing(Comprehensive Utilization of Associated Gas Project Department, PetroChina Changqing Oilfield Company, Xi’an 710016, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp60-64,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The distribution status, properties and characteristics of oilfield associated gas in Changqing Oilfield block were briefly described. Ten technologies in the process of development, utilization and comprehensive utilization ways of associated gas were mainly introduced. The comparison of comprehensive utilization was analyzed. The result shows that the oilfield associated gas has been proved to be a kind of clean energy, which has broad development and utilization prospects and satisfactory application effect. The comprehensive utilization of associated gas in Changqing Oilfield provides a reliable basis for subsequently developing and utilizing of oilfield associated gas.
Key words: Changqing Oilfield, associated gas, comprehensive utilization
Application of catalytic distillation technology in gasoline etherification unit
Huang Jingang，Zhou Jiaqiang，Chen Ningning(PetroChina Ningxia Petrochemical Company， Yinchuan 750021, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp65-69,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: This paper introduced the application of catalytic distillation technology in 40×104 t/a gasoline etherification unit. The results show that the etherification installation is suitable for gasoline etherification unit. The vapor pressure of the mixed gasoline dropped from 68 kPa to 56 kPa. The octane number of light gasoline increases by 1.33 units， and the olefin content in light gasoline reduces by 15.71%. The increase of the economic benefit is significant. The average conversion rate of C5 and C6 tertiary carbonic olefins reached 95.13% and 52.28%, respectively. The etherification effect is remarkable. The catalyst can catalyze the etherification reaction at 40 ℃, and has a better conversion rate. The higher activity of the catalyst at low temperature is beneficial to prolonging the service life of the catalyst. The methanol content in etherified light gasoline should be controlled at about 0.18%, which can be further improved by optimizing the etherification to make the benefit maximum. The outlet conversion rate of etherification reactor was increased from 69.39% to 93.71% with catalytic distillation technology. The methanol consumption of per ton light gasoline is 90.9 kg. The energy consumption of per ton light gasoline is 19.94 kg standard oil, which is far lower than the designed value. In addition, the waste water discharge of unit is less than designed value, which is in accordance with the characteristics of catalytic distillation technology.
Key words: etherification, catalytic distillation technology, reaction, energy consumption
Research of corrosion inhibition and foaming compound agent for acidic gas reservoir
Jiang Zeyin, Li Wei, Chen Wen, Chen Nan, Su Fuyan, Liu Shuang（Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp70-72,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Corrosion rates of tubing and casing could be excessive in acidic gas reservoir for the interaction of the acid gas and formation water. Therefore, wells being treated with foaming agent should also be treated with an appropriate corrosion inhibitor simultaneously. However, mixing corrosion inhibitor and foaming agent would lead to chemical incompatibility. Based on the characteristics of acidic gas reservoir in Sichuan and Chongqing, through the optimization of foaming agent applying to salinity range of 0 ~ 293 g/L and water soluble corrosion inhibitor, with the distribution and performance evaluation of them, CT5-7F has been developed. This compound agent could be used in the formation water with salinity from 0 to 293 g/L, When the dosage is 1.5 g/L, producing foam ability is more than 185 mm, foam stability is more than 165 mm, liquid-carrying volume is more than 152 mL/15 min， corrosion rate is lower than 0.076 mm/a and inhibition rate is more than 80%, can be used in acidic nature gas field.
Key words: acidic gas reservoir, foam-dewatering, corrosion inhibition and foaming compound agent, corrosion
Study on internal corrosion behavior of X80 pipeline steel used in the second West-East Pipeline Project
Dai Jiayun1, Li Changjun1, Xie Ping2(1.Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China；2.CNPC Pipe Union Company Western Branch, Xinjiang 830013, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp73-77,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Taking the X80 steel used in the second WestEast Pipeline Project(WEPPⅡ) as a study object, this paper researched the effects of Cl- and SO2-4 with different concentration(wt%) on internal corrosion behavior of X80 pipeline steel in stimulated solution for pigging product，discussed the internal corrosion mechanism of WEPPⅡby potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experimental. The results showed that, in the stimulated solution only containing different Cl- mass fraction, the polarization curves of X80 pipeline steel have typical characteristics of active dissolution, the corrosion current density(icorr) and the internal corrosion rate of X80 steel increases along with the increase of Cl- mass fraction; in the stimulated solution containing both 0.05% Cl- and different SO2-4 mass fraction, the polarization curves of X80 pipeline steel also have typical characteristics of active dissolution, but the internal corrosion rate firstly increases and then decreases with the increase of SO2-4 mass fraction. When the mass fraction of SO2-4 is 0.50%, the icorr reaches the maximum value while polarization resistance reaches the minimum value, and the corrosion behavior of X80 steel is the most serious at this time; when the stimulated solution contain both Cl- and SO2-4,the corrosion potential of X80 steel decreases while the icorr increases than the stimulated solution only containing Cl-, with the increase of SO2-4 mass fraction; when the stimulated solution contain both Cl- and SO2-4, with the increase of SO2-4 mass fraction, SO2-4 can adsorb on the metal surface faster than Cl-, which decreases the corrosion aroused by Cl-.
Key words: WestEast Pipeline Project(WEPPⅡ), X80 steel, internal corrosion, polarization curve, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), internal corrosion mechanism
Effect of plasma nitriding on electrochemical corrosion behavior of X80 pipeline steel in Kuerle soil simulated solution
Sun Yanwei, Chen Ji（College of Mechanical Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp78-82,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: This paper studied the corrosion resistance of X80 steel in Kuerle soil simulated solution for 30 days after the surface of X80 steel was treated by plasma nitriding. The influence of plasma nitriding layer of X80 steel on corrosion property was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the corrosion resistant of plasma nitriding treated specimen are more stronger than the raw X80 steel, with a corrosion potential of about -393 mV and a corrosion current density of about 0.046 μA·cm-2, which are about 337 mV higher than X80, and only about 1/1 000 of the corrosion current density of X80 steel. Compared with the X80 steel, the ε phase and γ′ phase by nitrides increased the corrosion potential significantly, which caused the happen of corrosion reaction more difficultly, and reduced the corrosion current density greatly. The surface morphology and composition of corrosion products were investigated by SEM, XRD and EDS. The result indicated that the corrosion products were mainly composed of β-FeOOH and Fe3O4.
Key words: plasma nitriding, X80 pipeline steel, electrochemical corrosion, soil simulated solution， Kuerle
Research and application of alcohol fracturing fluid
Li Kuidong(Oil Production Technology Research Institute of Jianghan Oilfield, Wuhan 430035, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp83-85,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The alcohol fracturing fluid prepared with low molecular weight alcohols can be used in low permeability tight reservoirs to promote flow back, effectively relieve water locking, and increase production of wells. The influence mechanism of alcohols to hydroxypropyl guar gum swelling and crosslinking reaction was analyzed. Special solubilizer and crosslinking promoter have been developed, the alcohol fracturing fluid (alcohols amount up to 20%) have been successfully prepared by HPG. The fluid system was applied on tight sandstone gas reservoir in JN gas field, and the effect was superior to the adjacent wells of similar reservoirs.
Key words: alcohol fracturing fluid, water locking, tight sandstone gas reservoir
Study on compatibility of injected water with reservoir at Shahejie formation in JX1-1 Oilfield
Liu Meiyao1, Li Haitao1, Xie Chongwen2, Zhang Yuting2,Gao Jianchong3, Liu Yigang3(1.State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China; 2. PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610051, China; 3.Tianjin Branch of CNOOC China Limited, Tianjin 300452, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp86-90,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Focusing on the problem of flooding resistance rising obviously and water injection capacity declining quickly during the water flooding development in JX1-1, a series of concerned experiments were carried out, such as formation sensitivity analysis, the static and dynamic compatibility analysis of injected water and formation water, dynamic compatibility evaluation of injected water (solid particles, suspended oil) with formation individually and collectively．The experimental results show that the strong water sensitivity is an internal factor, calcium scale is one factor of reservoir damage during mixed water reinjection, and another key factor is the excessive content of suspended material in water injection. It is suggested that injected water quality control indicators of Shahejie formation in JX1-1 Oilfield are as follows: suspended oil content ≤10 mg/L; suspended particle content ≤3 mg/L; and suspended particle size median d≤3 μm.
Key words: compatibility, scaling, sensitivity experiment, injected water quality control indicator, solid particle, suspended oil
Experimental study on reaction kinetics parameters of tight oil acid rock with high calcium
Liu Wei1, Liu Jia2, Liu Fei2, Wang Bin1, Li Nianyin2, Luo Zhifeng2（1. Engineering and Technology Research Institute of PetroChina Xinjiang Oilfield Company, Karamay 834000, China; 2. State Key Lab. of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp91-95,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Target formation of Permian Lucaogou tight oil reservoirs in Junggar Basin is the transition deposition of dolomite and clasolite. Tight oil is commonly developed with layered or staged hydraulic fracturing, as well as acidizing or acid fracturing. This paper tested the acid-rock reaction kinetics parameters of well J251 core samples with conventional hydrochloric, gelled acid and selfdiverting acid by rotating disk apparatus. These parameters include reaction rate constant, frequency factor, reaction activation energy, reaction order and effective H+ mass transfer coefficient. Reaction kinetic equation has been established, which can provide reliable basis for acid fracturing optimization design. Compared with that for limestone, dolomite, and complex lithology, the acid-rock reaction of this transition deposition was controlled by mass transfer and surface reaction.
Key words: acid rock reaction, kinetics parameter, tight oil reservoir with high calcium, etching pattern
Review of wormhole propagation model
Zhang Kai1, Liu Pingli1, Tan Xiaohua1, Liu Yuzhou2, Zhao Liqiang1（1. State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China；2. Inefficient Oil and Gas development division, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp96-100,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Matrix acidizing is a major stimulation performance for carbonate reservoir. However, the efficiency of stimulation strongly depends on the wormhole propagation. Therefore, it is important to use mathematic models to describe the acidizing process and wormhole formation. These models can be classified mainly into four types of capillary tube model, network model, dimensionless model and two-scale continuum model. Capillary tube model can easily simulate the wormhole propagation rate in x direction and y direction respectively. However, it can not simulate the optimum injection rate and other dissolution profiles such as face dissolution and uniform dissolution. Network model can study these dissolution profiles well, but many tedious calculations made the application efficiency lower. Dimensionless model can completely describe the acidizing process and wormhole formation, but can not be used independently, and it needs to combine with other models. Many factors have been considered by two-scale continuum model. It can completely describe wormhole formation and acidizing process. In addition, the optimum injection rate and the minimum pore volume to breakthrough can be calculated. However, lack of wormhole density calculation has limited this model to simulate core under the experimental conditions. The author suggests the wormhole model should be applied to field scale, and combining fractal method with wormhole model is the way to solve these problems.
Key words: matrix acidizing, wormhole, wormhole propagation model
Discussion on uncertainty estimation of indirectly measuring natural gas calorific value
Cai Li1,2, Tang Meng1,2, Chi YongJie1,2(1. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Natural Gas Quality and Energy Measurement, CNPC, Chengdu 610213, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp101-104,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Calorific value is one of the most important indexes of natural gas. Modern metrology requires all the testing results including calorific value exhibited with uncertainty. Comparing direct measurement of calorific value by heat-determiner, the indirect measurement of natural gas calorific value by calculation from the composition of natural gas requires the uncertainty estimation. In the article, the uncertainty estimation of calorific value from the uncertainty of composition is discussed. Using reference gas prepared by gravimetric method with two components as an example, the uncertainty of the calorific value is about 0.1%.
Key words: calorific value, indirect measurement, estimation of uncertainty
Application of multi-dimentional gas chromatography with valve-column module in refinery gas analysis
Xue Qingsong, Xue Teng, Wang Yimeng（Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, School of Chemistry and Molecular engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp105-109,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The concept of valvecolumn module used to create the multi-dimensional gas chromatography was proposed on the basis of investigation of the references of refinery gas analysis and the modern chromatography technique. At first, six basic valve-column modules applied for complex gas analysis were described in detail. Seven channels used to analyze the specific components of refinery gas were listed, which were composed of one or more of the aforementioned valve-column modules. Eighteen kinds of multi-dimensional gas chromatography were induced with parts of those channels. And they were sorted into four columns, five columns, six columns and seven columns according to the number of columns. The advantages and disadvantages and the exchange law were discussed in more details. It was found that two six-way valves and one tenway valve were equal entirely in valve-column module. The valve-column module had to be designed firstly, and then the analysis channel was built for creation of multi-dimensional gas chromatography system. It was only related to the number of columns, no direct relationship with the number of valves for completing the same analysis task.
Key words: valve-column module，gas chromatography，refinery gas analysis，analysis channel
Field test and countermeasures analysis of drilling noise
Zhang Weishi, Huang Ding, Liu Hongqiang, Li Yaning, Xu Donghua, Liu Binyan（School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum(East China), Qingdao 266580，China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp110-112,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Drilling noise has a bad impact on health and life of staff. Through field testing and analyzing drilling equipment noise in 21 drilling well site in Shengli Oilfield, it is found that noise source in the well site distributes scatteredly. The value of drilling noise constantly ranges from 73.2 dB to 109.4 dB, the largest noise of engine room can achieve 109.4 dB, the maximum noise value of drilling pumping room is 97.3 dB, and the noise at drilling floor can reach 93.4 dB. The rig with 3 200 m drilling depth can produce the highest noise, which exceeds 90 dB, and the noise will decrease with the increase of depth, then tend to stabilize at last. For the purpose of reducing noise, well site layout can be arranged reasonably, electrical power drilling technique and install insulation board around the main equipment and well site can be taken use of preferably.
Key words: drilling, field test, noise character, noise control, noise
Analysis on material selection of natural gas vent pipeline
Liu Wei1, Li Peng1, Zhang Zhe2, Ma Na1, Dai Xingxing1, Zhang Yuting1(1. China Petroleum Engineering (Xinjiang) Co., Ltd，Karamay 834000, China；2. Xinjiang Oilfield Company No.1 Gas Production Plant，Karamay 831200，China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp113-117,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The material selection of high-pressure natural gas vent pipeline was studied. The operating temperature of natural gas vent pipe is low, which exceeds the avowable lower limit temperature of ordinary carbon steel. In this case，low temperature and stress conditions should be considered. By calculating the operation temperature, operation pressure and stress of a natural gas vent pipe，whether it is in the condition of low temperature and low stress is analyzed. The results show that when the vent pipe operating pressure is below 1.0 MPa for normal operation, the axial tensile stress is below 10% of the minimum tensile strength value of steel 20#. Pipeline operation condition is “low temperature and stress condition”. Therefore, 20# steel can be used as natural gas vent pipe.
Key words: vent pipeline, vent temperature, low temperature, low stress, back pressure, material selection
Emergency maturity assessment method of petrochemical enterprises based on cloud model
Huang Liangliang1, Yao Anlin1, Qi Yunqing1, Fan Xiaoxia2(1. College of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering，Southwest Petroleum University，Chengdu 610500，China；2. Sichuan CHIDU Building Engineering Construction Design Company，Chengdu 610500，China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp118-122,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: A comprehensive assessment method based on cloud model theory is proposed in order to deal with the problem of fuzziness and randomness in the process of emergency capacity assessment of petrochemical enterprises. Firstly, starting from PPRR(prevention, preparation, response and recovery) model of crisis management, assessment indicator system of emergency maturity in petrochemical enterprises was established; then, cloud model and weight value of indexes were obtained through backward cloud generator and CRITIC(criteria importance through intercriteria correlation) method; finally, comprehensive assessment of emergency maturity was accomplished by floating and comprehensive cloud algorithms. The results show that this method can reveal inherent uncertainty of assessment process and indexes, and the evaluation results are intuitive and practical, so as to achieve group decision-making easily.
Key words: petrochemical enterprise, emergency capacity, maturity, cloud model, CRITIC method
Optimization of ESD system actuate element in SichuanChongqing gas transmission station
Xu Jingyuan1， Luo Min1， Mao Yanheng1， Chen Yingjie2， Liao Xin3， Bie Qin1(1. Gas Management Office, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield, Chengdu 610213, China；2. Exploration Business Division, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield, Chengdu 610041, China)；3. Planning Section, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield, Chengdu 610051, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.2,pp123-128,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Pneumatic hydraulic ball valve, as an actuate element, is one of the main parts of ESD system in SichuanChongqing gas transmission station. Reasonable set of pneumatic hydraulic ball valve as actuator not only plays an important role for cutting off gas supply, but also has an important influence on ensuring the safety function of ESD system. For these purpose, the existing problems of pneumatic hydraulic ball valve actuator in SichuanChongqing gas transmission station were analyzed. And two optimization plans were put forward. The results show that ESD system can meet the principle of independent setting and security after optimization improvement. Field applications show that: ESD system can work properly and play the required safety function; and the misoperation rate of ESD system reduces greatly and protect the safety of the gas station.
Key words: gas transmission station, ESD system, actuate element, pneumatic hydraulic ball valve, logic control, optimization