CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS
Prediction of sulfur solubility in high sulfur gas based on BP neural network
Chen Lei, Li Changjun（School of Petroleum Engineering，Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp1-5,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Research on the elemental sulfur solubility in high sulfur gas is the premise and foundation of sulfur deposition mechanism, sulfur deposition prediction and treatment technology research, as well as the core subject of indoor sulfur deposition research work. To associate and predict the sulfur solubility in high sulfur gas, a Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network (abbreviated as BP ANN) model was proposed. Implementation procedure and parameters setting of this model were introduced in detail. The results showed that the model could simulate and interpolate the solubility of sulfur in high sulfur gas, while the extrapolative effect was poor. Compared with other existing model, the caculation results of BP ANN was model better than that of the Chrastil association model and the empirical formula, which was in accord with the calculation results of the equation of state method and the six parameters association model.
Key words: sulfur deposition, BP neural network, prediction, elemental sulfur, high sulfur gas, solubility
Research and application of SM-series separators for natural gas dehydration and dehydrocarbon
Xiong Si, Chen Jiaqing, Shi Yi, Shen Weiwei(School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617， China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp6-13,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The SM-series separator researched by Shell Oil Company is a kind of effective equipment for natural gas dehydration and dehydrocarbon process. This paper systematically summarized development, structure and working principle of the SM-series separator. The results indicated that the SM-series separators combining gravitational separation with high-efficiency component parts have the advantages of high separation efficiency and modular components. Therefore, it is suitable for natural gas dehydration and dehydrocarbon unit. Moreover, aiming at the development of SM-series separator, the theoretical research of gas-liquid separation can contribute to obtain the working situations of some component parts and discovery the distribution of average droplet size in gas-liquid separators, which can provide references for optimization design of component parts and performance improvements of the separator.
Key words: natural gas, dehydration, dehydrocarbon, gas-liquid separator, SM series separator
Absorption study of acid gas in nature gas by sterically hindered amine TBEE
Chi Minghao, Li Chunhu, Zhang Xiangkun, Xue Zhen, Shi Huilong, Yang Weiwei, Wang Liang(College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp14-18,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The influence of temperature and volume fraction of amine solution on the absorption effect under the condition of low carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide ratio (3% H2S, 5% CO2, volume fraction) was studied. The optimum reaction conditions were determined as follows: reaction temperature is 40 ℃, and the volume fraction of amine solution is 35%-45%. The H2S, CO2 removal performance and selectivity of MDEA and TBEE were contrasted, and the absorption of acid gas by using mixed solution of MDEA and TBEE was studied. The results showed that the removal performance and selectivity of TBEE is significantly better than that of MDEA. With the increasing TBEE proportion in the mixed solution, the selectivity and acid gas load increased gradually. In addition, the energy consumption of mixed solution is less than MDEA.
Key words: natural gas, TBEE, MDEA, desulphurization and decarbonization, selectivity, sterically hindered amine
Research on hydrocarbon dew point control method of output gas in condensate gas field
Ma Guoguang1, Dong Wenhao1, Ma Junjie2, Wen Xin1, Xu Peilin1, Cao Di1（1.State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China； 2. CNPC Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Co. Ltd., Chengdu 610051，China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp19-22,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Most of condensate gas fields are high-pressure gas field. Traditional throttle refrigeration dehydrocarbon process shows inadaptability during the later period of gas field development. In order to improve the adaptability of treatment process, the scheme of replacing the throttle with turbine expander was proposed to control hydrocarbon dew point. By the comparison and analysis of the two processes，it was concluded that the expansion turbine low temperature de-hydrocarbon process could not only reduce the gathering pressure and delay process modification time，but also lower the engineering investment and energy consumption. Therefore, it provides a new idea for process design of the condensate gas field.
Key words: condensate gas， throttle refrigeration， turbo expander， hydrocarbon dew point
Study on alkaline earth metal catalyst for catalytic cracking heavy oil
Tang Ruiyuan1, Tian Yuanyu1,2, Cai Jianlong2, Qiao Yingyun2(1. State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China) Qingdao 266580, China; 2. Research Centre for Lowcarbon Energy Sources, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp23-27,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Using small-sized fluidized bed experimental device with the vacuum residue as raw material and magnesiaalumina as catalyst, the effects on gas product distribution of heavy oil catalytic cracking under different reaction temperature, water-oil mass ratio and catalyst-loading quantity were studied. The effects of different catalysts on heavy oil catalytic cracking were also investigated. The results showed that temperature was the most influential factor to heavy oil catalytic cracking. The ethylene mass yield of vacuum residue was 11.89%, and the total olefins mass yield was 20.19% under the optimum condition of 750 ℃, water-oil mass ratio of 2, catalyst loading quantity of 40 g. Through the comparison of different catalysts, the selectivity of magnesiumaluminate was better than that of calciumaluminate, and the yield of calcium-aluminate was higher than that of magnesium-aluminate.
Key words: alkaline earth metal, vacuum residue, catalytic cracking, yield, olefin
Design characteristics and commissioning summary of 380 kt/a sulfur recovery unit
Zhang Li, Xiao Hongliang(Sinochem Quanzhou Petrochemical Co., Ltd, Quanzhou 362000, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp28-32,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The 380 kt/a sulfur recovery device is the supporting environmental protection device for 12 000 kt/a refinery project of Sinochem Quanzhou Petrochemical Co., Ltd，which adopted the domestic self-developed SSR sulfur recovery process. The design characteristics and technological process of the large sulfur recovery unit were briefly introduced. The start commissioning problems under the condition of low load were analyzed and summarized to provide guidance for unit long-periodic steady running. Commissioning results showed that the sulfur recovery unit runs smoothly, the emissions concentration of sulfur dioxide in tail gas was far lower than the standards prescribed by the national environmental protection department, and sulfur products meet the requirements of superior grade sulfur in the GB/T 2449-2006 Sulfur for Industrial Use. Therefore, it has good environmental and economic benefits.
Key words: sulfur recovery, SSR, design characteristics, low load, operation
Architecture and pipe reconstruction design of RFCC unit reactorregenerator system
Lyu Changhai， Xia Debao(CPECC EastChina Design Branch, Qingdao 266071, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp33-35,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: As the core part of refinery unit, the piping design of reactor-regenerator system for Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking (RFCC) unit has always been the technical difficulty of refinery piping design. By analyzing and summarizing the problems encountered in the design and construction process of 1 400 kt/a RFCC unit reactor-regenerator system reconstruction project of PetroChina Dalian Petrochemical Company, solutions and recommendations about the architecture and pipe reconstruction design of reactor-regenerator system were proposed respectively.
Key words: residue fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC), reactor-regenerator system, architecture design, piping design, reconstruction
Enhancing selective absorption performance of MDEA desulfurization solution
Li Yongsheng(Natural Gas Purification Plant，Dazhou Natural Gas Purification Co., Ltd, Sinopec, Dazhou 636156, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp36-39,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: By analyzing the influence factors of selective absorption about MDEA desulfurization, it was identified that adjusting gas-liquid volume ratio and absorber plate numbers were the main optimization methods of the process. By increasing the gas-liquid volume ratio, reducing amine circulation flow and the numbers of absorber plate, the selective absorption performance of amine could be improved. As the results, the product gas yield could be increased, and the consumption of electricity, steam and amine could be reduced.
Key words: selectivity, absorption, desulfurization, MDEA, H2S, CO2
Startup and operating study on sulfur recovery unit under ultra low load
Tan Peng1， You Shaohui1， Tang Zhonghuai2（1. CNPC Guangxi Petrochemical Company, Qinzhou 535008, China； 2. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp40-43,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The initial startup of 60×103 t/a sulfur recovery unit in Guangxi Petrochemical Company under ultra low load in 2014 was introduced. Under the conditions of low acid gas flow rate which only reach 13% of design load, initial startup under ultra low load run smoothly by taking measures including burning hydrogen with the acid gas, controlling jacket temperature and optimizing the operation of sulfur condensers. The operating problem of the sulfur recovery unit switching from 10×103 t/a (phase I) to 60×103 t/a (phase II) was solved.
Key words: sulfur recovery, ultra low load, hydrogen burning, optimizing operation
Process of light hydrocarbons recovery from LNG with cryogenic energy utilized in LNG terminal
Wang Yufan1，Li Yuxing1，Wang Wuchang1，Wang Xiaoshang2，Liu Jingjun2
（1. College of Pipeline and Civil Engineering， China University of Petroleum (Huadong)，Qingdao 266580，China； 2. Qingdao LNG Co., Ltd, Sinopec, Qingdao 266440, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp44-49,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In recent years, with the rapid development of large LNG terminals, the research of LNG cryogenic energy utilization is increasingly urgent. C+2 light hydrocarbons, which are resources with high additional values, can be separated from LNG by efficiently utilizing its cryogenic energy. An improved process of light hydrocarbons separation is proposed in this paper: the cold energy of the demethanizer feed is provided to the condenser of the deethanizer for liquefied ethane and C+3, which are easy to be stored and transported. Then, a case study of applying the process was carried out for the rich LNG of a domestic LNG terminal, which indicated that the recovery rate was about 97.5% for C+3, and about 95.78% for ethane. And the economics of the process was studied. The results showed that recovering light hydrocarbons from LNG by this process could gain great profits. This paper also proposed a new calculation method of LNG cryogenic energy utilization rate for the process. It is concluded that LNG cryogenic energy utilization rate is 38.93% with the process used alone. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for the composition, temperature and other parameters of LNG, and the effects of them on the recovery rate of C+3 and ethane and the energy consumption were studied. It provided a guidance for optimal operation of the terminals.
Key words: terminal， LNG， cryogenic energy utilization， natural gas， light hydrocarbons recovery， light hydrocarbons separation
Mixed refrigerant research of LNG process with cascade double mixed refrigerant cycle
Wang Yuanchun1, Cheng Xiaojiao1, Gao Jun2, Wang Siqian3, Cao Lianjin2(1. China Petroleum Engineering Co., Ltd. Beijing Company, Beijing 100000, China; 2.State Key Laboratory of Oil & Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China; 3. Sichuan Oil & Gas Construction Engineering Co.,Ltd, Chengdu 610213, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp50-53,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: To reduce the power of mixed refrigerant cycle (MRC), the process used the pre-cooling cycle. The cascade double mixed refrigerant cycles are widely used in pre-cooling cycle. This paper established the objective function of unit power consumption of the double mixed refrigerant cycle to analyze the relationship among pre-cooling temperature, composition and proportion of MR and the unit power consumption. As the result, the best pre-cooling temperature was -50 ℃. The composition of pre-cooling mixed refrigerant is from C2H6 to C5H12, and the deep-cooling mixed refrigerant should include N2, CH4, C2H6 and C3H8. Meanwhile, the optimum proportion of the mixed refrigerant is the content of each component corresponding to the minimum unit specific power consumption.
Key words: double mixed refrigerant, pre-cooling temperature, liquefaction, composition, optimum proportion
Effect of olefin on hydro-conversion of thioether and surface composition over NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst at low reaction temperature
Deng Fanfeng1,2, Huang Xingliang2，Zeng Jing3(1. China Natural Gas Corporation Limited LNG Institute, Chengdu 610000, China; 2. CNPC Key Laboratory, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China; 3. Materials Company, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610000, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp54-59,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Using Al2O3 as the support, the NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The effect of olefin on tert-butyl methyl sulfide hydro-conversion was researched in fixed bed reactor at relative low temperature of 200 ℃ over NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst. The result showed that the added olefine reduced conversion of thioether significantly because of competitive adsorption in the surface of catalyst. The surface composition and morphology of catalyst samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, sulfur and carbon element analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the added olefin made catalyst surface appearing obvious particles aggregation, agglomeration and carbon deposition; and it resulted in Ni migration to the surface of the catalyst, decrease of Mo4+/ Mo6+ and increase of Ni0/Ni2+, which could reduce the activity of the catalyst in a certain degree.
Key words: olefin, thioether, competitive adsorption, carbon deposition, surface composition, nickel-molybdenum catalyst
Thermodynamic analysis of methane reforming with carbon dioxide
Li Jianwei, Chen Chong, Wang Dan, Yao Weiguo, Zhang Sanli(College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xi`an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an 710054, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp60-64,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: To optimize reaction conditions and improve the reaction efficiency of catalyst, an equilibrium constant method was applied to study the thermodynamic influences of operating parameters, such as reaction temperature, pressure and feed inlet composition, on the reforming properties. The minimum feasibility temperature of the reaction was calculated to be 914 K. The results showed that the methane conversion increased with temperature and decreased with pressure. At 1 123 K，the conversions of CH4 and CO2 achieved 94.47％and 97.31％ respectively. When the molar ratio of CH4 and CO2 increased, the conversion of CH4 and CO2 appeared a drab but opposite change tendency, when molar ratio of CH4 and CO2 is 1.2, CO2 conversion rate reached 99.29% and molar ratio of H2 and CO was 0.99. By the introduction of oxygen, the conversion of CH4 increased, but that of CO2 reduced, and the molar ratio of H2 and CO increased. When the molar ratio of CH4, CO2 and O2 was 1.2∶1∶0.575, auto-thermal reaction could be realized.
Key words: equilibrium constant, reforming, Aspen Plus, thermodynamics, auto-thermal
Study on mixed refrigerant formulation optimization for natural gas liquefaction
Meng Yiming1, Wang Dongjun2, Chen Bo2(1. China University of Petroleum（Beijing）, Beijing 102249, China; 2. China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau Tianjin Design Institute, Tianjin 120107, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp65-69,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Mixed refrigerant method is an important means to liquefy natural gas at low temperature. Due to the complex operating condition and cooling medium multiphase coexistence,selection and formulation optimization of mixed refrigerant become the major challenge for the natural gas liquefaction technique. This article used uniform design experiments to study mixed refrigerant formulation. That is, preliminarily select the basic components by the principle that different refrigerant has an effect in its particular refrigerating range; then simulate the refrigerating effect of different components by using process simulation software ASPEN HYSYS, and analyze the function of each component with less experiments; under the constant pressure and treatment capacity, taking the minimum circulation quantity of mixed refrigerant as target parameter to make optimal analysis, finally obtain the optimization formulation of mixed refrigerant, which avoid adopting the conventional approach with complex principle analysis and trial calculation.
Key words: natural gas liquefaction, mixed refrigerant, process simulation, formulation, uniform design, optimization
Selection and evaluation methods of casing and tubing materials for sour environments
Yang Jianqiang, Zhang Zhonghua, Zhou Qingjun, Guo Jinbao(Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201900, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp70-73,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In this paper, the application limit and evaluation methods of casing and tubing materials used in sour oil or gas wells in related international standards were discussed, these materials including low alloy steel, martensite stainless steel and nickel based alloys. Research progress and experience of the application limit of above materials in Baosteel were briefly introduced, and ambiguities of the related standards were analyzed and supplemented.
Key words: casing and tubing materials, application limit, sour environment,evaluation method
Optimization of preflush surfactant in diesel fuel base drilling fluid
Ou Hongjuan1,2, Li Ming1,2, Gu Tao1,2, Liu Honghua2, Yang Yan3, Guo Xiaoyang2
(1. School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China; 2. State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China; 3. Drilling＆Production Technology Research Institute, PetroChina Jidong Oilfield Company, Tangshan 063000, China) . CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp74-78,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Preflush effective displacing oil-base drilling fluid is the key to improve the cement quality of shale gas, and surfactant is the key to decide the displacing effective of preflush. Currently, optimizing surfactant only by cleaning efficiency as index to consider engineering performance is a heavy workload and has certain blindness. Therefore, researches of optimization method depending on surfactant properties were carried out. Firstly, the ion type and HLB value extent of surfactants with context higher cleaning efficiency were determined. Secondly, the critical surface tension γc required by surface of wetting and penetrating diesel fuel based drilling fluid were ensured. Thirdly, the surfactants were optimized by combining surface tension of surfactant with CMC values. Fourthly, combining the material research with engineering evaluation, a set of optimization method suitable for preflush surfactants of diesel fuel base drilling fluid was determined. Experimental results showed that preflush surfactants of diesel fuel base drilling fluid should meet the following characteristics:①non-ionic/anionic surfactants should be used, and the HLB value should be 12~15; ②optimum dosages of the surfactant should be close to or over the critical micelle concentration of the surfactant; ③the surface tension γlg of surfactant should be less than or close to the soaking surfaces of oilbased drilling fluid γc(the critical surface tension=25~27 mN/m), and the cleaning efficiency of preflush is higher. This method can provide guidance for optimization of surfactants, and help to improve the cementing quality of shale gas well.
Key words: shale gas, horizontal wells, diesel fuel base drilling fluids, surfactant, critical surface tension, cleaning efficiency, optimization method
Research and application of a single step online acidification acid system
Wang Benwu1, Liu Pingli2, Zhang Lu1, Lan Xitang1, Zhao Liqiang2, Li Nianyin2
(1.Tianjin Branch, CNOOC(China) CO., Led, Tianjin, Tanggu 300450, China; 2.State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp79-83,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: At present, conventional acidification is the main pattern for injection wells. However, there are some problems existing in conventional acidification operation for several times, such as large equipment footprint, long operation time, difficult in treatment coordination and negative impact on water injection and production caused by repetitive acidizing. To solve these problems, a single step online acidification technology was proposed. The core of the technology is using a single kind of acid which has efficient ability to replace the threestep conventional acid. Thus, a series of research on new single step acid system (G intelligent integrated acid) were carried out, mainly including compatibility performance with injected water and produced water, precipitation inhibition, slow reaction, corrosion inhibition, effect evaluation of acidification and microscopic analysis. The results show that G intelligent integrated acid could meet the performance requirement of the single step acid system, the optimal mixed proportion with injected water is 1∶2~1∶8. SEM analysis indicated that acid could not destroy the rock skeleton, and energy spectrum analysis result showed that acid could efficiently chelate metal ion. G intelligent integrated acid system has been applied in B4 water injection wells in Bohai Oilfield for online single step acidizing and the technology increased water injectivity index significantly of B4 well, effect of reducing injection pressure and enhancing productivity is remarkable..
Key words: water injection well, single step, acidizing, acid system, microscopic analysis
Problem analysis and countermeasure of the application of oil-base drilling fluid
Liu Zhendong(Drilling Technology Research Institute of Shengli Oil Engeering Company Limited, Sinopec, DongYing, 257000，China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp84-88,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Drilling in Luojia block and Qiaozhuang area of Shengli Oilfiled has certain risk because of the crack development of oil and mud shale. Using oil-base drilling fluid could solve the problem well. At present, oil-base drilling fluid has been applied in several wells in these regions. In this paper, the applications of oil-base drilling fluid are summarized. Some problems existing in field application are concluded and analyzed, and some countermeasures are proposed.
Key words: oil-base drilling fluid, mud shale, field application, emulsion stability, sealing property
CO2 flooding potential evaluation and its injection-production method optimization after water flooding in low permeability reservoir
Yang Hong1, Wu Zhiwei2, Yu Huagui1, Jiang Shaojing1, Wang Weibo1, Ao Yangyang1(1. Institute of Shanxi Yanchang Petroleum (Group) Co., Ltd, Xi，an 710075, China; 2. PetroChina Great Wall Oil Drilling Engineering Co., Ltd, Beijing 100000, China; 3. Petrochina xinjiang oilfield, karamay 834000, china). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp89-93,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Due to dense matrix and serious heterogeneity, the water flooding development effect is poor in Qiaojiaowa block, Yanchang Oilfield. Therefore, CO2 indoor flooding experiment is carried out to potentially evaluate CO2 flooding and water alternating gas (WAG) on the basis of water flooding, and optimize the injection parameters such as injecting velocity, slug size and the ratio of gas and water. Besides, yield predictions of water flooding, water flooding based on well optimized, CO2 flooding and WAG after injection CO2 for 5 years are conducted using numerical simulation. Experimental results show that it is a large potential in target block for CO2 flooding after water flooding. The enhanced oil recovery (EOR) improvement of CO2 flooding and WAG are 8.43% and 20.95% respectively compared with water flooding. Oil recovery with WAG increases first and then decreases with three injection parameters increase. The best injected velocity, slug size and gaswater ratio are 0.73 mL/min, 0.1 PV and 1∶1. Simulation results show that the EOR improvement of water flooding based on well optimized, CO2 flooding and WAG after injecting CO2 for five years after developing 15 years are 0.77%, 13.81% and 12.98% respectively compared with water flooding. The suggested production plan is WAG after injecting CO2 for five years.
Key words: low permeability reservoir, CO2 flooding, water alternating gas (WAG), injecting parameter
Parameter optimization of gel and polymer alternating injection after polymer flooding
Zhang Jihong1, Cheng Qiaochu1, Chen Xiling2, Li Li2（1.Key Laboratory for Enhancing Oil/Gas Recovery of Ministry of Education in Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing 163318, China; 2.Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Liaohe Oilfield, PetroChina, Panjin 124010, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp94-98,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Daqing oilfield has entered the extra high water cut development stage after polymer flooding. There are some problems, such as low degree of water flooding control and big contradictions between layers , etc. In order to further dip remaining oil, improve recovery factor and solve the problem of injection-production exploitation, on the basis of indoor experiment, this paper studied parameter optimization of gel and polymer alternating injection after polymer flooding in view of N5 test area. The results show that the EOR effect of small slug with more rounds of gel and polymer alternating injection after polymer flooding is better than big slug with less rounds; best combination of slug is gel (0.02 PV)+polymer (0.03 PV) and total injection rounds are 11(total 0.55 PV). Under this condition, the stage recovery can increase about 10% than polymer flooding, which indicates that the method of gel and polymer alternating injection has the potential of further developing remaining oil after polymer flooding.
Key words: polymer flooding, gel, polymer, alternating injection, parameter optimization
Research progress of heat-resistant and salttolerant acrylamidebased copolymer
Liu Yangyang1, Huang Wenzhang2, Wu Keying1, Mou Yachen1(1.College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chendu 610500, China; 2. College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp99-103,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Heatresistant and salt-tolerant acrylamide copolymer is one of the hotspots in the current research, which is formed of acrylamide as main monomer, added the monomer with properties of heat-resistant and salt-tolerant. This article introduces the heat-resistant and salt-tolerance mechanism of function monomer, polymerization method, and the choice of initiator. Through the recent research status of heat-resistant and salt-tolerant acrylamide based copolymers at home and abroad, adding adequate function monomer is the most effective way to improve the heat-resistant and salt-tolerance of polyacrylamide. And selecting the appropriate polymerization method and initiator could obversly influence the molecular weight and performance of copolymer.
Key words: acrylamide, monomer, heat-resistant and salt-tolerant, polymerization method, initiator
Analysis of the similarities and differences of domestic and foreign standards for natural gas quality test method
Zeng Wenping1,2, Luo Qin1,2 (1.Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, China; 2.Natural Gas Quality Supervision and Inspection Center for Petroleum Industry, Chengdu 610213, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp104-108,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: With the rapid growth of China's natural gas import trade volume and increasing of import source in China, it is in urgent need of comparative analysis for domestic and foreign natural gas test standards. This paper mainly introduced the similarities and differences of domestc and foreign standards for natural gas quality test method , including gas sampling, composition analysis, calculation of physical parameters, water content/water dew point determination, hydrocarbon dew point determination, sulfide content analysis, etc. The test standards were comparatively analyzed from the following aspects: scope, method and principle, data processing and precision requirement of analysis results. The conclusion could provide technical support for the negotiations in the selection of the test standards for natural gas quality.
Key words: natural gas, test method, standard, similarities and differences, comparative analysis
Determination of the content of organic sulfide compounds by HPLC
Shen Qiying, Li Jinping(Beijing Institute of Petro-chemical Technology, Beijing 102617， China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp109-112,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: A method for simultaneous determination of diphenyl sulfide，benzothiopene，dibenzothiopene and 4,6-dimethyl dibenzothiophene by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was proposed. While the n-hexadecane was solvent, the mobile phase was aqueous solution of 90 wt% methanol and flow rate of 1 mL/min, the detection wavelength was in 254 nm, the results showed that four components could be well separated in 10 minutes. Linearity of four analyses were found in range of 3.1~350 μg/mL, 2.3~400 μg/mL, 3.4~500 μg/mL and 5.0~300 μg/mL, and the detection limit were 1.98 μg/mL, 1.59 μg/mL, 1.47 μg/mL and 2.05 μg/mL respectively，which had good precision, stability and recovery. The experimental results showed that the method was simple，rapid and accurate, and could be used for determination of organic sulfide compound in petroleum products from different source and processing technology.
Key words: high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)，organic sulfide compound，diesel oil
A novel technology and experimental analysis of formation water in air drilling
Tian Jialin1,2, Fu Chuanhong1, Yang Lin1, Liu Zhenglian3, Long Xiaokang4, Fang Jian4(1．School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China; 2．School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp1-5,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE; 3. CCDC Drilling & Production dngineering Technology Research Institute, Guanghan 618300, China; 4. PetroChina Southwest Oil & gasfield Company, Chengdu 610501, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp113-117,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Aiming at the poor watercarrying capacity of foam in air drilling, this paper proposed a novel technology based on a solid phase water carrying agent. Studies were also carried out to analyze the carrying capacity, carrying rate, and adhesion properties of the solid phase water-carrying technology as well as the influence of the pressure on the adsorption capabilities of water. Furthermore, field test was conducted based on the main contents of the solid phase water-carrying technology studies. Results showed that when compared with the traditional foam, this technology has the characteristics of high water-carrying rate and capacity.It wouldn't affect the normal drilling and does not hold pressure, etc. This technology has important significance to reduce the drilling cost and improve the drilling speed. At the same time, it also verifies the reliability and feasibility of the technology.
Key words: air drilling, formation water, solid phase water-carrying agent, water-carrying performance, test analysis
Sodium hypochlorite dosage determination and generation unit selection of LNG terminal
Jiao Yueming1, Chen Shuai2, Yang Li1, Jing Xinglong1（1. Xinjiang Hualong Oilfield Technology Company Limited, Karamay 834000, China;2. PetroChina Dalian Liquefied Natural Gas Company Limited，Dalian 116600, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp118-123,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: LNG terminals usually use seawater as heat medium to gasify LNG. But in the actual operation, there are risks that marine microbes multiply and adhere to pipes and units. Therefore, LNG terminals usually add sodium hypochlorite at the seawater intake, but the dosage and generation units are questions needed to be answered. Firstly, the factors affecting the dosage and its evaluation criteria were analyzed and the dosage determination process was illustrated with Dalian LNG Terminal as a case study. Then, two types of generation units， seawater electrolysis system and sodium hypochlorite solution direct dosing system，were introduced and each running cost was calculated respectively. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the two systems were analyzed. From the comparison, seawater electrolysis system had the benefits of lower running costs and could be used immediately after production; on the other hand, sodium hypochlorite solution direct dosing system had the advantages of lower front-end costs, more simple device, and less footprint.
Key words: LNG terminal, marine microbe, NaClO, dosage, electrolysis seawater
Energy measuring instruments configuration and energy-saving measures in Wanzhou Natural Gas Purification Plant
Li Fei, Lei Heng, Peng Yun, Zhou Bin, Zeng Gang(Wanzhou Branch of Chongqing Natural Gas Purification Plant General, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company, Chongqing 404001, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp124-128,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: This paper introduces the energy consumption data and the configuration of energy measuring instruments in Wanzhou natural gas purification plant, compares and analyses the energy consumption data in 2012 and 2013, and puts forward the energy saving measures such as reform of low low pressure steam recovery system, reasonable addition of frequency conversion equipment, use of steam ejector device, strengthening the management of measuring instruments and data.
Key words: energy, measuring instrument, energy-saving measure
Use of SLAB View for simulation of natural gas diffusion in blowouts of sour gas well
Luo Qin1,2, Zhao Yuhui3, Liao Kexi2, Xiang Fangqian3, Zhou Dong1(1. Safety, Environment and Technology Supervision Research Institute, PetroChina Southwest
Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610041, China；2. Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China; 3. PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610051, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.3,pp129-132,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: This paper describes the SLAB heavy gas dispersion modeling and uses SLAB View to simulate the H2S diffusion process and hazardous areas in a sour gas well blowouts. It identifies the influence range of H2S cloud cluster at specified concentration averaging time, the time when the H2S cloud cluster of specified concentration reaches the furthest distance, and the furthest diffuse distance in wind direction. The comparison shows that SLAB View offers an easier and faster option to simulate leakage and diffusion process during sour gas well blowouts on flat terrains, and therefore it is a useful tool for the prediction of the diffusion consequence and influence range.
Key words: SLAB model, blowout, H2S cloud cluster, diffuse distance