CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS
Thermodynamic study on amine-modified adsorbent of CO2 adsorption at low CO2 partial pressures
Liu Zhilin, Teng Yang, Zhang Ka（Beijing Key Laboratory of Emission Surveillance and Control for Thermal Power Generation, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp1-6,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: To reduce the greenhouse effect, effective measures should be taken to reduce the emissions of CO2. Amine-modified adsorbents are considered as important adsorbent materials to capture CO2. In this paper, a balance model was established to describe the adsorption isotherms of amine modified MCM-41 under low CO2 partial pressure and the thermodynamic parameters was calculated. The model was based on Dual-site Langmuir model and assumed that there were two independent adsorption mechanisms: chemical adsorption on amine groups and physical adsorption via surface area. In order to distinguish the physical adsorption and chemical adsorption of amine modified adsorbents, a new method based on adsorption of non-modified adsorbents and surface area was proposed. The results showed that the model could fit well with the measured adsorption isotherms. The calculated physical and chemical adsorption heats are -25.4 kJ/mol and -41.9 kJ/mol respectively, the total adsorption heats is -67.3 kJ/mol, which were in accordance with the experimental data. The saturation adsorption capacity of MCM-41-TEPA could reach 7.79 mmol/g.
Key words: amine-modified, MCM-41, low CO2 partial pressure, CO2 adsorption, thermodynamic
Applied research on domestic MCS chelated iron desulfurization process in Western Sichuan marine sour gas reservoir
Yao Guangju1, Chen Hailong1, Zhao Kai2, Peng Hongli1（1. Engineering Technology Research Institute, Sinopec Southwest Branch， Deyang 618000, China; 2. West Sichuan Gas Production Plant， Sinopec Southwest Branch， Deyang 618000, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp7-11,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Western Sichuan marine gas reservoir is in the exploration and development evaluation stage at present. The natural gas contains 0.7%-5% hydrogen sulfide, which needs the single well desulfurization test mining and gas reservoir evaluation. The tracking analysis of the first oral production well (Chuanke 1) using MCS domestic chelated iron desulfurization process was carried out. Aiming at the environmental protection and sulfur plugging problems, the desulfurization process was adjusted and optimized, the suggestions for process popularizing were put forward, and the operating energy consumption and costs were calculated. Currently the operating time of MCS chelated iron desulfurization unit is over 8 000 h per year, sulfur ointment production is 4 t/d, and the cumulative production of natural gas is 85×106 m3, which increase about 6.25×106 m3 per year compared with the annual output of natural gas before optimization. It ensures the successfully test mining of the well and the effective evaluation of Western Sichuan marine gas reservoir, which can provide references for the production test of similar sour gas well.
Key words: Western Sichuan marine gas reservoir, CK1 well, sour natural gas, chelated iron desulfurization process
Causes and countermeasures of liquid sulfur system blockage in sulfur recovery unit
Lai Ning, Li Yanping, Yu Yongqing(Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region 750411, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp12-16,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The 26 kt/a sulfur recovery unit of Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group Coal Chemical Industry Branch Olefins Company has been put into use for more than five years, the liquid sulfur system-clogging problem has become more and more serious. The ways to deal with similar problems from the sulfur recovery unit of refinery, natural gas desulfurization plant and coal chemical industry were referenced. Reasons were analyzed from the aspects of the acid gas components, the problems existing in the operation and the process design faults. The following measures were taken to solve the problems: adding a heat regenerator cooler and a roots blower; prolonging the sweep time of sulfur from 2 days to 3 days when shut down; increasing the furnace temperature up to 1 060 ℃ when purging of sulfur; increasing the return line for the sulfur pump. These measures could solve the blocking problem of liquid sulfur system, which ensured the long-term safe and smooth operation of the unit.
Key words: sulfur recovery, block, acid gas, liquid sulfur system
Analysis and treatment measures on common operation problems of TEG dehydration device
Li Xucheng, Zheng Xiaolin, Xiao Jun, Zheng Rong, Du Cheng（Northwestern Sichuan Gas District, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Jiangyou 621709, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp17-20,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The exorbitant salinity of formation water and the improper use of chemicals often have a severe effect on the operation of TEG dehydration unit. This paper mainly discussed the common problems and influencing factors of TEG dehydration unit, deeply analyzed the reasons of the device operation, put forward corresponding treatment and preventive measures, which might provide reference for the steady operation of TEG dehydration equipment.
Key words: triethyleneglycol, dehydration, problems analysis, treatment measures
Operation evaluation of 4.5×106 m3/d purification unit in the fourth natural gas purification plant of Changqing Oilfield
Wang Erzhen, Jiang Weiping, Fan Yuan, Han Fuqing, Yang Yinyin(The First Natural Gas Plant, PetroChina Changqing Oilfield Company, Jingbian 718500, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp21-27,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The fourth natural gas purification plant of PetroChina Changqing Oilfield Company is the first set of 4.5×106 m3/d purification unit designed independently by Changqing Design Institute. It was put into production in November 2013, two sets of 4.5×106 m3/d purification unit run smoothly up to now, which have reached the design requirements of the project in general. Through summing up experience and optimizing operational parameters in running process, the purification unit operated smoothly and well, and the key parameters were all controlled within the range of design index. This article summarized the operating condition of the fourth purification plant in the past year, put forward some countermeasures for solving existing problems of the unit, and also provided the improvement suggestions.
Key words: natural gas, purification, desulfurization, decarbonization, dehydration
Optimized design of TEG dehydration from coal bed gas
Ding Ling, Jiang Hong(Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp28-33,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: At present, the method for dehydration of coal bed gas in China mainly refers to the dehydration treatment method for low-pressure gas field, which has the problems of high engineering investment and energy consumption in the process. The low yield of coal bed gas determines that the emphases for gathering and transportation of coal bed gas are saving investment and improving adaptability. By analyzing the problems of existing coal bed gas dehydration process, it was found that the mainly problems were the poor use effect of filter separator, glycol pumps and buffer tank, together with the bad heat transfer effect of the poor and rich glycol heat exchanger. Measures of the process and equipment were put forward to improve the dehydration efficiency, reduce investment, improve technological adaptability, and save energy. Finally, taking the gas of Qinshui Shanxi coal bed gas field as an example, comparing the traditional design with the optimized design by HYSYS software, the simulation results showed that the optimized design could effectively reduce comprehensive energy consumption of about 65% relative to traditional design. Therefore it has high dehydration efficiency, strong adaptability, low investment and low energy consumption.
Key words: coal bed gas, TEG, dehydration, saving energy and reducing consumption
Analysis and preventive measures of blockage in MCRC sulfur recovery unit
Xiong Junjie1, Li Tao1, Wang Xiaoqiang2, Tang Hongying1, Qu Yang2(1. Moxi No.1 Natural Gas Purification Plant, Central Sichuan Oil and Gas District, PetroChina
Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Suining 610000, China; 2. Chongqing Natural Gas Purification Plant General, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Dazhu 635100, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp34-37,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Aiming at the blocking problem of the MCRC sulfur recovery unit, the blocking reasons of MCRC sulfur recovery unit in Moxi Natural Gas Purification Plant of PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company were analyzed. The parts are likely to be blocked and corresponding prevention measures were proposed. The analysis result showed that the control of operating steps and control nodes should be strengthened during the startup and shutdown processes in order to ensure the operating rate of the unit. The control of recovery equipment operating parameters should be guaranteed during the production operation; the removal effect of the slag in system and the pressure detection quality of the equipments should be ensured during maintenance process.
Key words: MCRC, sulfur recovery, blocking, preventive measures
Application of hydrogen co-ignition in sulfur recovery unit under ultra low load
Sun Wei, Cai Haijun, Chen Zhigang(PetroChina Urumqi Petrochemical Company, Urumqi 830019, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp38-41,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The application of hydrogen co-ignition in 40 kt/a sulfur recovery of PetroChina Urumqi Petrochemical Company under low load was introduced. Under low load, the hydrogen co-ignition process could well control the temperature of the reaction furnace, the two-stage converter, and process gas temperature of the three-stage sulfur condenser outlet, which could prevent the liquid sulfur condensing in the process gas pipeline at low temperature and realize the long-term operation of the unit under ultra low load.
Key words: hydrogen co-ignition, sulfur recovery, low load
Trial production of FCC light gasoline etherification unit with large processing capacity
Li Xiuqiang, Li Lin, Ye Xiaoming, Wang Ying（Oil Refinery of Lanzhou Petrochemical Company of PetroChina, Lanzhou 730060, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp42-45,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In order to solve the problem that the FCC light gasoline from FCC gasoline hydrogenation unit was not refined completely by FCC light gasoline etherification unit, the trial production of FCC light gasoline etherification unit with large processing capacity was presented to increase the economic benefit of refinery and gain more benefits to our company. The processing capacity of FCC light gasoline etherification unit was raised from 60 t/h to over 70 t/h, through one month trial production, compared with the calibration data,the results showed that molar ratio of methanol/tert-olefins decreased by 0.17, space velocity increased by 0.24 h-1, inlet temperature of first and second etherification reactor increased by 10.9 ℃ and 13.2 ℃ respectively, column bottom temperature of etherification fractionator decreased by 3.4 ℃, and other process parameters were almost the same with calibration data; the RON for etherifying gasoline reached 99.2, the unit energy consumption decreased 3.24×105 kJ/t, and the yield of etherifying gasoline increased by 3.53%. The unit is stable in operation, the etherifying gasoline quality meet the blending requirement, and the economic benefit increase 26.88 million yuan annually.
Key words: FCC light gasoline, etherification unit, large processing capacity, RON, yield
Simulation and experiment research on the relationship between primary air ratio and burner head temperature of partially premixed combustion burning natural gas
Zhang Yangjun1,2, Lu Hongmei3（1. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China; 2. North China Municipal Engineering Design & Research Institute, Tianjin 300074, China; 3. School of Architectural Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp46-51,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: There are rarely studies on the influence of gas burner head temperature caused by gas components change or combustion process variation with primary air ratio. In this paper, it simulated the relationship between primary air ratio and gas burner head temperature of partially premixed combustion by using ICEM CFD, and compared with the experiment results, it confirmed the temperature correction coefficient to calculate the specify value of primary air ratio when gas was substituted. The simulation results conform to the characteristic of primary air ratio decreasing with Wobbe Index increasing, the deviation of simulation value and experiment value is within ±0.02. When gas was interchanged, the primary air ratio of partially premixed combustion is not only inversed with Wobbe Index, but also affected by gas burner head temperature. From the experiment results, when rich gas is substituted by poor gas, the suggestion temperature correction coefficient k is 1.1; and when poor gas is substituted by rich gas, the suggestion temperature correction coefficient k is 0.9; but when the properties of interchange gases are similar, it is not necessary to make temperature correction.
Key words: partially premixed combustion, primary air ratio, burner head temperature, Wobbe index, temperature correction
Study on separation of a new diesel fuel additive polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers
Hu Guoqing, Tian Hengshui, Wei Yongmei, Huang Jie(College of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp52-54,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The raw material was treated by extraction, which effectively reduced the tower plugging and azeotropic entrainment. Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODE) were separated by atmospheric-vacuum rectification and the optimal technical conditions of each product separation were achieved. In the experiment, the purity of each product reached methyl 99.06%, PODE2 97.81%, PODE3 99.68%, and PODE4 99.62%, which could provide an experimental basis for industrial purification of polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers.
Key words: extraction, polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers, separation, rectification
Preparation of Ni2P/SBA-15 catalyst and research of its hydrodenitrogenation performance
Qi Zhendong1，Yan Jingsen1,2,3, Wei Min1, Wang Haiyan1,2（1. Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001, China; 2. China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, China; 3. Liaoning Institute of Science and Technology，Benxi 117004, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp55-59,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The supported nickel phosphide catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and in situ H2 reduction method. The effects of the different P/Ni ratio, reduction temperature, and active component mass fraction on the performance of hydrodenitrogenation were examined. The samples were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia, and the effects of different temperature on the properties of catalyst hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) were evaluated on a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor by using quinoline as the model molecules. The results show that when the nickel phosphorus ratio is 1, nickel phosphide mass fraction is 30%, and the reduction temperature is 650 ℃, its catalytic activity is best. At a reaction temperature of 360 ℃, pressure of 3 MPa, hydrogen/oil volume ratio of 500, and liquid hourly space velocity of 2 h-1, the HDN conversion of quinoline can reach 85.6%.
Key words: SBA-15, nickel phosphide, quinoline, hydrodenitrogenation
Corrosion control methods of sour gas fields in Sichuan and Chongqing
Zhang Qiang1,2,3, Yuan Xi1,2,3, Zhang Dongyue1,2,3, Mo Lin1,2,3, Jiang Jingjing1,2,3
(1. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, China; 2. National Energy R&D Center of High Sulfur Gas Exploitation， Chengdu 610000， China; 3. High Sulfur Gas Exploitation Pilot Test Center， CNPC， Chengdu 610213， China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp60-65,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Accompanied with gas field water, sour gas fields in Sichuan and Chongqing contain high H2S and CO2, and corrosion is a significant problem during the production process. In this paper, the corrosion behaviors of metal materials in Sichuan and Chongqing gas fields were analyzed. Furthermore, according to the different working conditions of underground pipeline, on-site gas pipeline, outside gas pipeline and purification plant, this paper carried out targeted research of corrosion control, corrosion detection and corrosion data management.
Key words: sour gas field, corrosion, corrosion control, corrosion detection
Study on the reaction of alkali/surfactant/polymer and reservoir cores in Daqing Oilfield
Wu Xiaolin1, Yin Yidong2, Wu Guopeng1, Lu Anhuai2, Hou Zhaowei1, Ding Hongrui2, Wang Haoran2, Yang Xiaoxue2(1. Exploration and Development Academy of Daqing Oilfield Co. Ltd, Daqing 163712, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Orogenic Belts and Crustal Evolution, School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp66-72,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flooding technology can significantly enhance oil recovery, but the ASP injection fluid can easily react with reservoir cores, resulting in scaling, plugging and the recovery rate reducing. So it is necessary to study dissolution, transportation and plugging rules of ASP in reservoir. In this paper, the reaction process of ASP and reservoir cores in Daqing Oilfield was analyzed by X-ray diffraction(XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), polarizing microscope(PM), environmental scanning electron micoscope(ESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS). The study on reaction kinetics was conducted and the dissolution kinetics equations of Si and Al were calculated. The results show that albite, nosean, buddingtonite are respectively formed in Nanwuqu, Xingshugang, and Lamadian cores after 50 days. The dissolved amount of Si is three to four times than that of Al and the kinetics equations of Al are in the power function form. The replacement of NaOH with KOH or Ca(OH)2 is advised.
Key words: Daqing Oilfield, ASP, reservoir core, kinetics equation, reaction mechanism, technical proposal
Study on dual-degrade workover fluid system of high permeability reservoir
Xing Xijin1, Luo Gang2, Xie Renjun1（1. CNOOC Research Institute, Beijing 100027, China; 2. Jinzhou HANC New Technology Institute, Jinzhou 434000, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp73-76,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Most of Bohai oilfield reservoirs are high permeability, and leakage often occurs in the process of workover. If the compatibility of workover fluid flowing into layer with reservoir is poor, and polymer in workover fluid is hard to degrade, which will cause reservoir damage and reduce the output after workover. Therefore workover fluid is required with high seal capability and easy degradability. Considering the requirement of degradation rate from workover time, and starting with thermal-degrade and bio-enzyme degrade, dual-degrade workover fluid system was developed in this paper. The indoor evaluate results indicate that this workover fluid system has strong seal capability, good thermal-degradation and bio-enzyme degradation, and the reservoir protection effect is also better.
Key words: high permeability, thermal degradation, bio-enzyme, workover fluid, seal
Process simulation of high solubility salt removal from ethylene glycol solution
Liang Yu1,2, He San2, Lin Lin1, Wang Yun2, Zou Yongli2, Yuan Zongming2（1. CNOOC Deepwater Development Ltd, Tianjin 518067, China; 2. Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp77-81,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In the development of deepwater gas field, ethylene glycol is commonly used as hydrate inhibitor. Large amounts of salt contained in produced water caused scaling in the treatment of rich glycol liquid with high salt in common ethylene glycol regeneration system,which has serious impact to the offshore production system, even lead to suspend production. Therefore, the process of salt removal from ethylene glycol is supposed to be one part of ethylene glycol regeneration system for deepwater gas production. Models of the process of high solubility salt removal from ethylene glycol have been developed in process simulation program Aspen Plus, through which the effect of recycle temperature, ethylene glycol recycle flow rate, and water content of ethylene glycol on the salt removal process have been simulated and analyzed. The results showed that the salt removal process made a good performance with appropriate process parameters such as the flash pressure（absolute） of 0.15 MPa, the recycle heated temperature of 141~145 ℃, and the recycle flow rate is 60 times of the feed rate.
Key words: deepwater, ethylene glycol regeneration, desalt, Aspen Plus, process simulation
Performance studies on new sulfur solvent containing amine for high-sulfur gas well: Dissolving sulfur rule and regeneration property(Ⅰ)
Xu Guoling1, Wang Hui1, Wang Zhenhua2, Wang Shenyang3, Wang Shutao3, Zhang Ying1(1. China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China; 2. Natural Gas Production and Marketing Factory of Sinopec Zhongyuan Oilfield Company, Puyang 457001, China; 3. Petroleum Engineering Technology Research Institute of Sinopes Zhongyuan Oilfield Company, Puyang 457001, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp82-85,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Aiming at the blocking and serious corrosion caused by sulfur deposition in high-sulfur gas wells, a new sulfur solvent containing amine was developed, which composed of organic amine as promoter, physical solvent as assistant and a series of agents such as emulsifier, sulfide catalyst and surfactant. Properties of dissolving sulfur and separation recovery performance of elemental sulfur after soluble sulfur were evaluated and studied. Test results show that sulfur dissolving process is quickly by using the new amine sulfur solvent, mainly finishing in 30 minutes, and total dissolved solids (TDS) is 59.45 g/100 mL. It is beneficial to increase TDS with elevated temperature, H2S content in the sulfur dissolving environment and powdery elemental sulfur. When the amount of water is 10%, the retention rate of TDS is 74.27%. The elemental sulfur is able to separate out for recycling through adding water to the amine solvent with dissolved sulfur. What is more, the recovery rate of elemental sulfur is 34.32%, when the content of adding water is 900 mL.
Key words: high-sulfur gas well, sulfur deposition, sulfur solvent, property evaluation
Research progress of corrosion inhibitor for viscoelastic surfactant-based self-diverting acid
Liu Beibei1, Zhou Fujian1, Hu Dapeng2(1. China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249，China； 2. Curtin University，Perth 6102，Australia). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp86-89,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: Having the characters of large reserve, serious heterogeneity, and deep buried, carbonate reservoirs are widely distributed in China, and the treatment effect using traditional acid fluid system is not very good. Viscoelastic surfactant-based self-diverting acid treatment is a novel and high efficient stimulating technique which has been developed in recent years. Corrosion inhibitor is the important guarantee for successful implementation of the acidizing technology. Viscoelastic surfactant has an interaction with conventional hydrochloric acid corrosion inhibitor, and the interaction can affect the corrosion control effect. Low temperature corrosion inhibitors have been developed for some time, but high temperature corrosion inhibitors are still in research and development. Using good water-soluble corrosion inhibitor in viscoelastic surfactant-based self-diverting acid is the future research direction.
Key words: viscoelastic surfactant, high temperature corrosion inhibitor, self-diverting acid
Development plan of international standardization for upstream area in natural gas industry
Luo Qin1,2,3,4, Xu Wenxiao1,2,3,4, Chang Honggang1,2,3,4（1. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, Chengdu 610213, China; 2. Secretariat of China Natural Gas Standardization Technology Committee，Chengdu 610213, China； 3. Secretariat of ISO/TC 193/SC 3，Chengdu 610213, China； 4. Key Laboratory of Natural Gas Quality and Energy Measurement, CNPC，Chengdu 610213, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp90-94,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: According to the complex features of upstream natural gas which is two phase or multi-phase, containing water, hydrogen sulfide, this paper describes the current situation for upstream area in natural gas standardization at home and abroad. In the light of our specific situation, on the basis of the existing national and industrial standards and the technical problems needed to be resolved considering in the improvement of management profits and the development of natural gas trade, the development plan of natural gas upstream international standardization is proposed.
Key words: natural gas, upstream area, international standardization, development plan
Practice application of shipping LNG measurement
Zhang Qifang, Chen Guofeng, Chen Xiangyang, Ye Ruijun(Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau，Shenzhen 518067，China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp95-99,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The characteristics of shipping liquefied natural gas (LNG) as well as the difference between LNG and general merchandise measurement in trade, and the necessity of energy calculation, are introduced in this paper. Analysis and introduction of the method and step of a series of detection methods, such as the calculation of tank capacity, liquid density, unloading energy and mass, and unit heating value, provide a practical reference for the detection of liquefied natural gas.
Key words: LNG, energy, unloading, unit heating value, density
A grouping and suppression strategy for correlated alarms based on process data
Zhang Yutao1,2, Wang Haiqing1, Chen Guoming1(1. China University of Petroleum (East China), College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Qingdao 266580，China; 2. CNOOC Energy Technology & Services-Safty & Envrionmental Protection Co.，Tianjin 300456，China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp100-104,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: To solve the common problems of the alarm system in the process industry, such as low efficiency and frequent interlocking alarm, this paper proposes a grouping and suppression strategy for correlated alarms based on process data. The Ward Method was used in this strategy for cluster analysis of the process data, and distance coefficient was the consideration to group the alarm variables that may related. Quantization regulations of alarm priority were introduced to identify the alarms needing response or suppression in an alarm group via analyzing the accurate priority score from both response time and severity of consequences. It is helpful for controllers to recognize the correlation among alarms, and improve the response efficiency. The strategy yields an effective alarm management that can help plant owners and operators to comply with the standards for alarm management such as ANSI/ISA 18.2 (2009) and EEMUA 191 (2007) which set limits on the number of alarms per unit time for an operator. The effectiveness of the approach is illustrated by successful application in TE process model where a significant reduction of alarms has been achieved.
Key words: correlated alarms, alarm suppression, cluster analysis, alarm priority, TE process
Research on chemicals for heavy oil sewage treatment in Baizhong 7 well block of Xinjiang Oilfield
Tang Li（Petroleum Chemical Engineering Department of Xinjiang Karamay Vocational and Technical College，Karamay 834000，China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp105-110,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In view of the characteristics of high heavy oil sewage and suspended solids contents, great fluctuation of water quality, high oil emulsification degree, and high dispersion degree of suspended solids in heavy oil sewage of Baizhong 7 well block, the indoor research were carried out beginning with water treatment chemicals selection. During the process, a new heat-resistant organic polymer coagulant KL-401 and its coagulant aid were developed and applied to the treatment system of heavy oil sewage in Baizhong 7 well block. The results showed that purification efficiency of the oily sewage improved in the well block and the discharge reached the standard of reinjection thin oil fields and reinjection the boiler.
Key words: heavy oil wastewater, coagulant, screening, up to standard
Application of brine electrolysis sterilization technology in wastewater treatment of Xinjiang Oilfield
Yan Zhong, Chen Yuping, Ma Xiaofeng, Liu Pengfei（Test Research Institute， PetroChina Xinjiang Oilfield Company, Karamay 834000, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp111-115,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: In view of high bacteria contents in oily wastewater of Xinjiang Oilfield, poor sterilizing effects using conventional chemical fungicides, and higher unit processing costs, PetroChina Xinjiang Oilfield Company carried out the evaluation of brine electrolysis sterilization technology. The theoretical analysis and experimental practice were conducted on the bactericidal effect, the dosing concentration, production costs, systems corrosion and safety issues in oil processing stations. Field test results showed that with the brine electrolysis sterilization device under the proper conditions, oilfield reinjection sewage bacteria contents could be controlled to satisfy the required water standards. The study showed that the sterilization technology is cost-effective in bacteria control, and is environmentally friendly and reliable. This technology has been widely applied in Xinjiang Oilfield.
Key words: electrolysis sterilization, bacterial, sewage treatment, application
Energy consumption analysis of heat pump drived distillation gas fractionation unit
Zhu Yuqin, Zhang Hairui（Xi’an Shiyou University, Xi’an 710065, China）. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp116-120,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The energy-use state was analyzed on the heat pump process in a 0.6 Mt/a light-ends unit with the process simulation software PRO/II. The pinch point technique was used to optimize the parameters of the heat-exchange system drived by heat-pump and the energy efficiency of some key equipment was also calculated. The majorization induced favorable energy saving effects and resulted in saving heating and cooling as high as 712.29 kW and 712.29 kW, respectively.
Key words: heat pump distillation, gas fractionation, exergy analysis, pinch point technique
Corrosion control of reclaimed water used in recycle cooling water system of purification plant
Wang Yue1, Li Fuyuan2, Lei Yu2, He Hongyong2, Huang Ganghua1, Chen Weiming2, Mao Ting1, Tian Yuan1(1. Research Institute of Natural Gas Technology, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Chengdu 610213, China; 2. Central Sichuan Oil and Gas District, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company, Suining 629000, China). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF OIL & GAS, VOL.44, NO.5,pp121-124,2015（ISSN 1007-3426, IN CHINESE）
Abstract: The reclaimed water used in recycle cooling water system of purification plant has caused severe corrosion, seriously affected the normal use of equipment and the production of purification plant. This article has carried on analysis and research of the circulating water system in detail, and found that the main problem is the incorrect use of the reclaimed water. Researches such as scale inhibition, corrosion inhibition, and sterilization are carried out to propose a solution which could assure the steady operation of the recycle cooling water system.
Key words: recycle cooling water, reclaimed water, scale inhibition, corrosion inhibition, sterilization